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Article

Levels and Potential Health Hazards of Chlorinated Pesticides in Surface Water Samples of Charsadda Area of Pakistan Using SPME-GC-ECD Technique

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Department of Chemistry, Women University Swabi, Swabi 23430, KPK, Pakistan
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Department of Chemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara Dir Lower 18800, KPK, Pakistan
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National Center of Excellence in Physical Chemistry (NCE), University of Peshawar, Peshawar 230000, Pakistan
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Department of Pharmacy, University of Swabi, Swabi 23430, KPK, Pakistan
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Department of Botany, Woman University Swabi, Swabi 23430, Pakistan
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Department of Chemistry, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal Dir Upper 18800, Pakistan
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Department of Chemistry, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200, Pakistan
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Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, 5 Kreutzwaldi St., 51006 Tartu, Estonia
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Research Centre of Biotechnology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Winogradsky Institute of Microbiology, Leninsky Pro-Spect, 33, Build. 2, 119071 Moscow, Russia
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Department of Environmental Science, University of Latvia, LV-1004 Riga, Latvia
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Department of Urban Studies, Unit of Built Environment and Environmental Science, Malmö University, 211 19 Malmö, Sweden
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Department of Biochemistry, University of Malakand, Chakdara Dir Lower 18800, KPK, Pakistan
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Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, 14a Ravila St., 50411 Tartu, Estonia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helvi Heinonen-Tanski
Water 2021, 13(18), 2468; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182468
Received: 21 July 2021 / Revised: 28 August 2021 / Accepted: 2 September 2021 / Published: 8 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficient Catalytic and Microbial Treatment of Water Pollutants)
In the present study, we determined the levels of chlorinated pesticide residues in surface water samples collected from the Charsadda district (KPK, Pakistan). SPME-GC-ECD with COMBI PAL CTC autosampler was used for extraction and analysis of 20 organochlorine pesticides in the collected water samples. For maximum efficiency of the SPME procedure, several parameters were studied, including the extraction and desorption time of the fiber, solution pH, agitation of samples, and stirring speed, etc. This method showed good liner response, with R2 values in the range of 0.9887 to 0.9999 for all pesticides. This method also provided good percent recoveries at 1 µg L−1 (87.5 to 106.0%) and at 2 µg L−1 (88.5 to 109.2%). Lower limits of detection for all 20 chlorinated pesticides were found to be lower than their maximum permissible contamination levels. Approximately 50% of the surface water samples collected from the Charsadda district were found to be contaminated with the pesticides γ-BHC, heptachlor, aldrin and dieldrin, with maximum concentrations of 0.023, 0.108, 0.014 and 0.013 µg L−1, respectively. For adults and children, the cancer risk from water due to contamination by various pesticides ranged from 0 to 33.29 × 10−6. The non-carcinogenic risk from each pollutant in the water samples of the Charsadda district was found to be in the order of heptachlor > aldrin > dieldrin > γ-BHC. However, the pesticides α-BHC, β-BHC, heptachlor epoxide, chlordane, endrin, 4,4′-DDD, endrin ketone, 4,4′-DDT, endosulfan sulfate and methoxychlor were not detected in any of the surface water samples of investigated in the present study. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorinated pesticides; SPME; GC-ECD; water samples; cancer risk chlorinated pesticides; SPME; GC-ECD; water samples; cancer risk
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ismail, M.; Alam, S.; Khan, M.S.; Shah, L.A.; Shah, S.M.M.; Wahab, M.; Rukh, G.; Rahman, N.u.; Rehman, N.; Amin, N.u.; Burlakovs, J.; Kallistova, A.; Pimenov, N.; Vincevica-Gaile, Z.; Jani, Y.; Zahoor, M.; Zekker, I. Levels and Potential Health Hazards of Chlorinated Pesticides in Surface Water Samples of Charsadda Area of Pakistan Using SPME-GC-ECD Technique. Water 2021, 13, 2468. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182468

AMA Style

Ismail M, Alam S, Khan MS, Shah LA, Shah SMM, Wahab M, Rukh G, Rahman Nu, Rehman N, Amin Nu, Burlakovs J, Kallistova A, Pimenov N, Vincevica-Gaile Z, Jani Y, Zahoor M, Zekker I. Levels and Potential Health Hazards of Chlorinated Pesticides in Surface Water Samples of Charsadda Area of Pakistan Using SPME-GC-ECD Technique. Water. 2021; 13(18):2468. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182468

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ismail, Muhammad, Sultan Alam, Muhammad Sufaid Khan, Luqman Ali Shah, S. M. Mukaram Shah, Muhammad Wahab, Gul Rukh, Najeeb ur Rahman, Noor Rehman, Noor ul Amin, Juris Burlakovs, Anna Kallistova, Nikolai Pimenov, Zane Vincevica-Gaile, Yahya Jani, Muhammad Zahoor, and Ivar Zekker. 2021. "Levels and Potential Health Hazards of Chlorinated Pesticides in Surface Water Samples of Charsadda Area of Pakistan Using SPME-GC-ECD Technique" Water 13, no. 18: 2468. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13182468

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