Freshwater ecosystems have been severely damaged worldwide by a multitude of human pressures, such as pollution, nutrient enrichment, damming or overexploitation, and this has been more intense over the past five decades. It is therefore important that the impacts of such stressors can be effectively detected, monitored and assessed in order to provide adequate legislative tools and to protect and restore freshwater ecosystems. The use of aquatic biota to detect, measure and track changes in the environment is often known as freshwater biomonitoring and is based on the premise that the presence or absence of biotic assemblages at a given site reflects its degree of environmental quality. For over a century, since the early pollution-oriented indicators, freshwater monitoring has been developing and testing progressively more complex indicator systems, and increasing the plethora of pressures addressed, using different biological groups, such as benthic macroinvertebrates, macrophytes, fish, phytoplankton and phytobenthos. There is an increasing demand for precision and accuracy in bioassessment. In this Special Issue, five high-quality papers were selected and are briefly presented herein, that cover a wide range of issues and spatial contexts relevant to freshwater biomonitoring.
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