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Article

Tillage Versus No-Tillage. Soil Properties and Hydrology in an Organic Persimmon Farm in Eastern Iberian Peninsula

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Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group, Department of Geography, Valencia University, Blasco Ibàñez, 28, 46010 Valencia, Spain
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Department of Physical Geography, University of Trier, 54296 Trier, Germany
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Department of Soil Science & Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, Yozgat Bozok University, 66900 Yozgat, Turkey
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Department of Forest Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, 46100 Kahramanmaras, Turkey
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Department of Cartographic Engineering, Geodesy, and Photogrammetry, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
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Department of Geomorphology, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 14117-13116, Iran
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Institute of Environmental Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 159 Nowoursynowska, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
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Dipartimento di Scienze Agrarie, Alimentari e Forestali, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90100 Palermo, Italy
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Department of Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University (SANRU), Sari 4844174111, Iran
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Faculty of AgriSciences, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 61300 Brno, Czech Republic
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Institute of Civil Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences—SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02 776 Warsaw, Poland
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Soil and Water Use Department, Agricultural and Biological Research Division, National Research Centre, Cairo 12622, Egypt
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Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, Vehari 61100, Pakistan
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School of Agriculture, Hellenic Mediterranean University, 71410 Heraklion, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(6), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061539
Received: 6 May 2020 / Revised: 18 May 2020 / Accepted: 21 May 2020 / Published: 28 May 2020
There is an urgent need to implement environmentally friendly agriculture management practices to achieve the Sustainable Goals for Development (SDGs) of the United Nations by 2030. Mediterranean agriculture is characterized by intense and millennia-old tillage management and as a consequence degraded soil. No-Tillage has been widely examined as a solution for soil degradation but No-Tillage relies more on the application of herbicides that reduce plant cover, which in turn enhances soil erosion. However, No-Tillage with weed cover should be researched to promote organic farming and sustainable agriculture. Therefore, we compare Tillage against No-Tillage using weed cover as an alternative strategy to reduce soil losses in persimmon plantations, both of them under organic farming management. To achieve these goals, two plots were established at “La Canyadeta” experimental station on 25-years old Persimmon plantations, which are managed with Tillage and No-Tillage for 3 years. A survey of the soil cover, soil properties, runoff generation and initial soil losses using rainfall simulation experiments at 55 mm h−1 in 0.25 m2 plot was carried out. Soils under Tillage are bare (96.7%) in comparison to the No-Tillage (16.17% bare soil), with similar organic matter (1.71 vs. 1.88%) and with lower bulk densities (1.23 vs. 1.37 g cm3). Tillage induces faster ponding (60 vs. 92 s), runoff (90 vs. 320 s) and runoff outlet (200 vs. 70 s). The runoff discharge was 5.57 times higher in the Tillage plots, 8.64 for sediment concentration and 48.4 for soil losses. We conclude that No-tillage shifted the fate of the tilled field after 3 years with the use of weeds as a soil cover conservation strategy. This immediate effect of No-Tillage under organic farming conditions is very promising to achieve the SDGs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tillage; No-Tillage; soil; runoff; erosion; weeds; Iberian Peninsula; persimmon; rainfall simulation Tillage; No-Tillage; soil; runoff; erosion; weeds; Iberian Peninsula; persimmon; rainfall simulation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cerdà, A.; Rodrigo-Comino, J.; Yakupoğlu, T.; Dindaroğlu, T.; Terol, E.; Mora-Navarro, G.; Arabameri, A.; Radziemska, M.; Novara, A.; Kavian, A.; Vaverková, M.D.; Abd-Elmabod, S.K.; Hammad, H.M.; Daliakopoulos, I.N. Tillage Versus No-Tillage. Soil Properties and Hydrology in an Organic Persimmon Farm in Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Water 2020, 12, 1539. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061539

AMA Style

Cerdà A, Rodrigo-Comino J, Yakupoğlu T, Dindaroğlu T, Terol E, Mora-Navarro G, Arabameri A, Radziemska M, Novara A, Kavian A, Vaverková MD, Abd-Elmabod SK, Hammad HM, Daliakopoulos IN. Tillage Versus No-Tillage. Soil Properties and Hydrology in an Organic Persimmon Farm in Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Water. 2020; 12(6):1539. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061539

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cerdà, Artemi, Jesús Rodrigo-Comino, Tuğrul Yakupoğlu, Turgay Dindaroğlu, Enric Terol, Gaspar Mora-Navarro, Alireza Arabameri, Maja Radziemska, Agata Novara, Ataollah Kavian, Magdalena Daria Vaverková, Sameh Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Hafiz Mohkum Hammad, and Ioannis N. Daliakopoulos. 2020. "Tillage Versus No-Tillage. Soil Properties and Hydrology in an Organic Persimmon Farm in Eastern Iberian Peninsula" Water 12, no. 6: 1539. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061539

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