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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

The Effect of Habitat Structure Boulder Spacing on Near-Bed Shear Stress and Turbulent Events in a Gravel Bed Channel

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA
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Water 2020, 12(5), 1423; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051423
Received: 10 April 2020 / Revised: 12 May 2020 / Accepted: 14 May 2020 / Published: 16 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Systems Approach of River and River Basin Restoration)
This study experimentally investigated the effect of boulder spacing and boulder submergence ratio on the near-bed shear stress in a single array of boulders in a gravel bed open channel flume. An acoustic Doppler velocimeter (ADV) was used to measure the instantaneous three-dimensional velocity components. Four methods of estimating near-bed shear stress were compared. The results suggested a significant effect of boulder spacing and boulder submergence ratio on the near-bed shear stress estimations and their spatial distributions. It was found that at unsubmerged condition, the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and modified TKE methods can be used interchangeably to estimate the near-bed shear stress. At both submerged and unsubmerged conditions, the Reynolds method performed differently from the other point-methods. Moreover, a quadrant analysis was performed to examine the turbulent events and their contribution to the near-bed Reynolds shear stress with the effect of boulder spacing. Generally, the burst events (ejections and sweeps) were reduced in the presence of boulders. This study may improve the understanding of the effect of the boulder spacing and boulder submergence ratio on the near-bed shear stress estimations of stream restoration practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: boulder spacing; submergence ratio; near-bed shear stress; Reynolds shear stress; turbulent events; stream restoration boulder spacing; submergence ratio; near-bed shear stress; Reynolds shear stress; turbulent events; stream restoration
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Golpira, A.; Huang, F.; Baki, A.B. The Effect of Habitat Structure Boulder Spacing on Near-Bed Shear Stress and Turbulent Events in a Gravel Bed Channel. Water 2020, 12, 1423.

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