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Open AccessArticle

Research on the Migration of the Total Manganese during the Process of Water Icing

College of Civil Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai 264000, China
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Water 2019, 11(8), 1626; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081626
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 4 August 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 7 August 2019
Our research focused on the migration law of the total manganese (TMn) during the process of water icing. We utilized two experimental methods: (1) natural icing and (2) simulated icing. While using laboratory simulation, we explored the effects of ice thickness, freezing temperature, and initial concentrations on the migration of TMn in the ice-water system. The distribution coefficient “K” (the ratio of the average concentration of TMn in the ice body to the average concentration of TMn in the under-ice water body) was used to characterize it. The results indicated that TMn continuously migrated from ice to under-ice water during the process of water icing. The concentration of TMn in the ice was the upper layer < middle layer < lower layer, and K decreases as the ice thickness, freezing temperature, and initial concentration increased. We explained the migration of TMn during the process of water icing from the perspective of crystallography. Our research can arouse other researcher’s attention towards the change of TMn concentration in lakes in high latitudes during the icebound period. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural icing; simulated icing; migration law; distribution coefficient “K”; TMn natural icing; simulated icing; migration law; distribution coefficient “K”; TMn
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Zhang, Y.; Tang, Y.; Yu, A.; Zhao, W.; Liu, Y. Research on the Migration of the Total Manganese during the Process of Water Icing. Water 2019, 11, 1626.

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