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A Quantity–Quality Model to Assess the Effects of Source Control Stormwater Management on Hydrology and Water Quality at the Catchment Scale

1
Water Resources Engineering, Civil Engineering, Institute for Advanced Studies, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
3
School of Environment, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 141785311, Iran
4
Department of Irrigation and Drainage (DID), Ministry of Water, Land and Natural Resources Faculty (University), Kuala Lumpur 50626, Malaysia
5
Civil Engineering Department, World University of Bangladesh, Dhaka 1205, Bangladesh
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1415; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071415
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 28 May 2019 / Accepted: 30 May 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydrologic Modelling for Water Resources and River Basin Management)
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Abstract

The vast development of urban areas has resulted in the increase of stormwater peak runoff and volume. Water quality has also been adversely affected. The best management practices (BMPs) and low impact development (LID) techniques could be applied to urban areas to mitigate these effects. A quantity–quality model was developed to simulate LID practices at the catchment scale using the US Environmental Protection Agency Storm Water Management Model (US EPA SWMM). The purpose of the study was to investigate the impacts of LID techniques on hydrology and water quality. The study was performed in BUNUS catchment in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study applied vegetated swale and rain garden to assess the model performance at a catchment scale using real field data. The selected LIDs occupied 7% of each subcatchment (of which 40% was swale and 30% was rain garden). The LID removal efficiency was up to 40% and 62% for TN and TSS, respectively. The peak runoff reduction was up to 27% for the rainfall of up to 70 mm, and up to 19% for the rainfall of between 70 and 90 mm, respectively. For the longer storm events of higher than 90 mm the results were not as satisfactory as expected. The model was more effective in peak runoff reduction during the shorter rainfall events. As for the water quality, it was satisfactory in all selected rainfall scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: urbanization; runoff; water quality; best management practices; low impact development urbanization; runoff; water quality; best management practices; low impact development
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rezaei, A.R.; Ismail, Z.; Niksokhan, M.H.; Dayarian, M.A.; Ramli, A.H.; Shirazi, S.M. A Quantity–Quality Model to Assess the Effects of Source Control Stormwater Management on Hydrology and Water Quality at the Catchment Scale. Water 2019, 11, 1415.

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