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Prevalence of Arcobacter and Other Pathogenic Bacteria in River Water in Nepal

1
Interdisciplinary Center for River Basin Environment, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
2
Department of Natural, Natural, Biotic and Social Environment Engineering, University of Yamanashi, 4-3-11 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
3
Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu 1524, Nepal
4
School of Public Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia 5005, Australia
5
Department of Global Environmental Health Sciences, Tulane University, 1440 Canal Street, Suite 2100, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
6
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8510, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071416
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 5 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Abstract

This study aims to determine the diversity of pathogenic bacteria in the Bagmati River, Nepal, during a one-year period. A total of 18 river water samples were collected from three sites (n = 6 per site) along the river. Bacterial DNA, which were extracted from the water samples, were analyzed for bacterial 16S rRNA genes by next-generation sequencing for 13 of 18 samples, and by quantitative PCR targeting Arcobacter for all 18 samples. The 16S rRNA sequencing identified an average of 97,412 ± 35,909 sequences/sample, which were then categorized into 28 phyla, 61 classes, and 709 bacterial genera. Eighteen (16%) genera of 111 potential pathogenic bacteria were detected with abundance ratios of >1%; Arcobacter, Acinetobacter, and Prevotella were the dominant genera. The Arcobacter abundance ratios were 28.6% (n = 1), 31.3 ± 15.8% (n = 6), and 31.8 ± 17.2% (n = 6) at the upstream, midstream, and downstream sites, respectively. Arcobacter was detected in 14 (78%) of 18 samples tested, with concentrations ranging from 6.7 to 10.7 log10 copies/100 mL, based on quantitative PCR. Our results demonstrate the poor bacterial quality of the Bagmati River water, suggesting a need for implementing more measures to reduce fecal contamination in the river water. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arcobacter; next-generation sequencing; pathogenic bacteria; quantitative PCR; river water Arcobacter; next-generation sequencing; pathogenic bacteria; quantitative PCR; river water
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Shrestha, R.G.; Tandukar, S.; Bhandari, D.; Sherchan, S.P.; Tanaka, Y.; Sherchand, J.B.; Haramoto, E. Prevalence of Arcobacter and Other Pathogenic Bacteria in River Water in Nepal. Water 2019, 11, 1416.

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