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Open AccessArticle

Assessing China’s Use Efficiency of Water Resources from the Resampling Super Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

1
Department of Business Administration, Taipei City University of Science and Technology, Xueyuan Rd., Beitou, Taipei 11202, Taiwan
2
Department of Economics, Soochow University, 56, Kueiyang St., Sec. 1, Taipei 10048, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 1069; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11051069
Received: 25 April 2019 / Revised: 17 May 2019 / Accepted: 21 May 2019 / Published: 22 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
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PDF [264 KB, uploaded 22 May 2019]

Abstract

Water resources’ use efficiency is an important issue under China’s rapid economic growth. This is because some provinces’ economic development may be delayed due to lack of adequate water resources. Whereas, high economically developed provinces may overuse water resources in order to achieve their economic goals; while also creating a large amount of pollutants. To assess water resources’ use efficiency from the resampling super data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach, our research comprehensively utilizes the following as inputs and outputs: (1) water resources: supply of water (SW), per capita water consumption (PCWC), and total water resources (TWR); (2) economic development: gross domestic product (GDP); (3) environmental issues: governance wastewater investment (GWI), wastewater discharge (WD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and other major pollutants (OMP). The results show that Tibet, Beijing, Guangdong, Qinghai, Shandong, Sichuan, Yunnan, Tianjin, Jiangsu, and Henan have relatively good water resources’ use efficiency with efficiency values larger than 1. The best efficiency is in 2015, while the worst is in 2017. Water resources’ use efficiency shows significant regional differences in 2013–2017, with the best average efficiency value in southwest China (1.4355) and the worst in north China (0.2987). The results of the Wilcoxon test present that PCWC, GDP, COD, and OMP exhibit very significant differences, PN and WD have significant differences, and SW and TWR have no significant influence. These results imply that China’s regional governments must formulate a better water resource strategy based on the water resource distribution of each region. Lastly, the emissions of environmental pollutants must be strictly monitored. View Full-Text
Keywords: water resources use efficiency; resampling; data envelopment analysis; Wilcoxon test; China water resources use efficiency; resampling; data envelopment analysis; Wilcoxon test; China
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Hsieh, J.-C.; Ma, L.-H.; Chiu, Y.-H. Assessing China’s Use Efficiency of Water Resources from the Resampling Super Data Envelopment Analysis Approach. Water 2019, 11, 1069.

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