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Open AccessArticle

Keeping Flows Separate: Good Management Practices in Novel Urban Water Systems Derived from Error Analyses

1
ISOE–Institute for Social-Ecological Research, Water Infrastructure and Risk Analyses, D-60486 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
2
Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut für Geodäsie, Fachgebiet Landmanagement, D-64287 Darmstadt, Germany
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(12), 2597; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122597
Received: 1 November 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 6 December 2019 / Published: 9 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
This article examines the causes and addresses the prevention of unintended interconnections, particularly cross-connections, in novel urban water systems using the example of Qingdao, where a Resource Recovery Centre for the reuse of greywater and blackwater has been established for 12,000 inhabitants. With respect to cross-connections, this work incorporated both social-scientific and technical error analyses. The social-scientific error analysis systematically focused on the planning, implementation, and operational phases of the project. Organisational shortcomings were identified in four areas: (A) Coordination and consensus between the commissioned design institutes, (B) information in tenders, expertise, and awareness, (C) ownership by investors, and (D) time management. Based on empirical evidence, this article derives and discusses (eight) recommendations for good management, integrating technical and organisational measures aimed at preventing cross-connections. The pursuit of such measures is appropriate in order to prevent most types of misconnections—not just for the case under discussion, but for other novel urban water systems as well. View Full-Text
Keywords: source separation; misconnections; quality assurance; dual supply; greywater; novel urban water system source separation; misconnections; quality assurance; dual supply; greywater; novel urban water system
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schramm, E.; Ebert, B.; Wang, B.; Winker, M.; Zimmermann, M. Keeping Flows Separate: Good Management Practices in Novel Urban Water Systems Derived from Error Analyses. Water 2019, 11, 2597.

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