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Open AccessArticle

Quantification of Groundwater Exploitation and Assessment of Water Quality Risk Perception in the Dar Es Salaam Quaternary Aquifer, Tanzania

1
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA), P.O. Box 3038 Morogoro, Tanzania
2
Laboratory for Applied Geology and Hydrogeology, Department of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281 (S8), B-9000 Gent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(12), 2552; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122552
Received: 4 November 2019 / Revised: 28 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
This study quantified groundwater exploitation and assessed water quality risk perception in the Dar es Salaam quaternary aquifer through a socio-economic survey. Annual total groundwater exploitation was estimated, using the daily per capita consumption of groundwater derived from the household survey. A logistic regression analysis was performed to ascertain the influence of sex, marital status, education level, employment, income, and cost of water on groundwater quality risk perception. It was revealed that most residents of Dar es Salaam use groundwater as a main source of water supply. The results of this study further showed that 78% consider groundwater as a reliable source. Averting strategies for insufficient quantity of groundwater consist of minimizing less necessary water uses, while for poor quality, buying bottled water and water treatment by boiling and using chemicals. The chance for water quality risk perception is 0.205 times greater for married than unmarried household heads, and it is 623 times higher for employed versus unemployed household heads. To get an overall view of the importance of groundwater for domestic needs in Dar es Salaam it is imperative to combine a time series data of groundwater and surface water exploitation.
Keywords: household survey; groundwater quantity; groundwater importance; groundwater quality awareness; quaternary aquifer household survey; groundwater quantity; groundwater importance; groundwater quality awareness; quaternary aquifer
MDPI and ACS Style

Mussa, K.R.; Mjemah, I.C.; Walraevens, K. Quantification of Groundwater Exploitation and Assessment of Water Quality Risk Perception in the Dar Es Salaam Quaternary Aquifer, Tanzania. Water 2019, 11, 2552.

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