Urban storm runoff is a major source of pollutants in receiving water bodies. To assess the impact of urban stormwater runoff on an urban river, the runoff process of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium (NH4), and total phosphorus (TP) were investigated on road surfaces classified as arterial road (AR), residential area (RA), and industrial area (IA) in the Pingshan River (PSR) watershed in Shenzhen, China. Event mean concentration (EMC) was calculated to analyze the water quality of road runoff, and the dimensionless M(V) cumulative curves were used to estimate the course of decreasing concentration of runoff pollutants during each rainfall event. Multicriteria decision making methods (PROMETHEE-GAIA) were used to identify the linkage between runoff pollutants, land use types, and rainfall intensity. The EMCs of COD and TP in runoff exceeded the class IV level of the water quality standard for surface water (China). RA was a major potential source for NH4, COD, and TP in the river. Controlling the first flush is critical to decrease the effect of road runoff on receiving water bodies, as most runoff pollutants in AR, RA, and IA had a first flush effect during heavy rainfall. The specific management measure for runoff pollution varied with land use type. Reducing road TSS concentrations was effective for controlling runoff pollution in AR and RA because NH4, TP, and COD attached to particulate matter. In IA, the collection and reuse of stormwater in the initial rainfall period were effective for reducing the effect of soluble pollutants in runoff on receiving water bodies. This study provides new information for managing urban road stormwater runoff in different land use types.
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