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Effect of Urban Stormwater Road Runoff of Different Land Use Types on an Urban River in Shenzhen, China

by Yang Liu 1,2,3, Chunyi Wang 4, Yang Yu 1,3, Yongyu Chen 4, Longfei Du 1,3, Xiaodong Qu 1,3, Wenqi Peng 1,3,*, Min Zhang 1,3,* and Chenxin Gui 4
1
State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
2
College of Hydrology and Water Resources, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
3
Department of Water Environment, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
4
China Construction Water & Environment Co., Ltd, Shenzhen 518000, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(12), 2545; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122545
Received: 8 November 2019 / Revised: 26 November 2019 / Accepted: 27 November 2019 / Published: 2 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainwater Management in Urban Areas)
Urban storm runoff is a major source of pollutants in receiving water bodies. To assess the impact of urban stormwater runoff on an urban river, the runoff process of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonium (NH4), and total phosphorus (TP) were investigated on road surfaces classified as arterial road (AR), residential area (RA), and industrial area (IA) in the Pingshan River (PSR) watershed in Shenzhen, China. Event mean concentration (EMC) was calculated to analyze the water quality of road runoff, and the dimensionless M(V) cumulative curves were used to estimate the course of decreasing concentration of runoff pollutants during each rainfall event. Multicriteria decision making methods (PROMETHEE-GAIA) were used to identify the linkage between runoff pollutants, land use types, and rainfall intensity. The EMCs of COD and TP in runoff exceeded the class IV level of the water quality standard for surface water (China). RA was a major potential source for NH4, COD, and TP in the river. Controlling the first flush is critical to decrease the effect of road runoff on receiving water bodies, as most runoff pollutants in AR, RA, and IA had a first flush effect during heavy rainfall. The specific management measure for runoff pollution varied with land use type. Reducing road TSS concentrations was effective for controlling runoff pollution in AR and RA because NH4, TP, and COD attached to particulate matter. In IA, the collection and reuse of stormwater in the initial rainfall period were effective for reducing the effect of soluble pollutants in runoff on receiving water bodies. This study provides new information for managing urban road stormwater runoff in different land use types.
Keywords: road stormwater runoff; arterial road; residential area; industrial area; first flush; PROMETHEE-GAIA; Pingshan river road stormwater runoff; arterial road; residential area; industrial area; first flush; PROMETHEE-GAIA; Pingshan river
MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, Y.; Wang, C.; Yu, Y.; Chen, Y.; Du, L.; Qu, X.; Peng, W.; Zhang, M.; Gui, C. Effect of Urban Stormwater Road Runoff of Different Land Use Types on an Urban River in Shenzhen, China. Water 2019, 11, 2545.

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