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Correction published on 15 April 2020, see Water 2020, 12(4), 1122.
Open AccessArticle

Removal of Selected Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Wastewater Treatment Plant in Jordan

1
Water and Environment Centre, Royal Scientific Society, Amman 11941, Jordan
2
Testing Sector, Royal Scientific Society, Amman 11941, Jordan
3
Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE 75007 Uppsala, Sweden
4
College of Engineering, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Omaha, NE 68588, USA
5
Water Sciences Laboratory, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(10), 2004; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102004
Received: 1 September 2019 / Revised: 17 September 2019 / Accepted: 19 September 2019 / Published: 26 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
The largest wastewater treatment plant in Jordan was monitored in the summer to determine the removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Grab samples were collected from the influent and effluent of As-Samra Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP). Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) were utilized to determine the concentrations of 18 compounds of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). The results showed that 14 compounds were detected in the collected samples from the influent and effluent of As-Samra WWTP. These compounds are 1,7-dimethylxanthine, amphetamine, acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cimetidine, cotinine, diphenhydramine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), morphine, phenazone, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, thiabendazole, and trimethoprim. However, four compounds were below the detection limit (<0.005 µg/L), namely cimetidine, methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), methamphetamine, and sulfachloropyridazine. Among PPCPs, the highest estimated average concentrations in raw wastewater were caffeine, acetaminophen, 1,7-dimethylxanthine, cotinine, and carbamazepine sampled during the summer, at an estimated concentration of 155.6 µg/L, 36.7 µg/L, 10.49 µg/L, and 1.104 µg/L, respectively. However, the highest estimated average concentrations in treated wastewater were for carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, caffeine, cotinine, and acetaminophen, at 0.856 µg/L, 0.096 µg/L, 0.086 µg/L, 0.078 µg/L, and 0.041 µg/L, respectively. In general, the results showed that some compounds in the collected samples of wastewater in Jordan have concentrations exceeding the values reported in the literature. The removal efficiency rates of 1,7-dimethylxanthine, acetaminophen, caffeine, cotinine, morphine, and trimethoprim were higher than 95%, while those of carbamazepine, sulfamethazine, and sulfamethoxazole were lower than 22.5%. Moreover, diphenhydramine and thiabendazole had negative removal efficiency rates. The removal efficiency rates of the PPCPs in As-Samra WWTP were generally consistent with those of indicator compounds reported in the literature for conventional WWTPs. View Full-Text
Keywords: pharmaceutical compounds; personal care products; wastewater treatment; activated sludge system; removal efficiency pharmaceutical compounds; personal care products; wastewater treatment; activated sludge system; removal efficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Al-Mashaqbeh, O.; Alsafadi, D.; Dalahmeh, S.; Bartelt-Hunt, S.; Snow, D. Removal of Selected Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Wastewater Treatment Plant in Jordan. Water 2019, 11, 2004. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102004

AMA Style

Al-Mashaqbeh O, Alsafadi D, Dalahmeh S, Bartelt-Hunt S, Snow D. Removal of Selected Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Wastewater Treatment Plant in Jordan. Water. 2019; 11(10):2004. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102004

Chicago/Turabian Style

Al-Mashaqbeh, Othman; Alsafadi, Diya; Dalahmeh, Sahar; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon; Snow, Daniel. 2019. "Removal of Selected Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in Wastewater Treatment Plant in Jordan" Water 11, no. 10: 2004. https://doi.org/10.3390/w11102004

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