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Article

Comparison of Thermal Comfort between Sapporo and Tokyo—The Case of the Olympics 2020

1
Faculty of Environment and Natural Resources, Albert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, Tennenbacher Str. 4, 79106 Freiburg, Germany
2
Research Centre Human Biometeorology, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Stefan-Meier-Str. 4, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
3
Chair of Environmental Meteorology, Albert-Ludwigs University Freiburg, Werthmannstr. 10, D-79085 Freiburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(5), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11050444
Received: 24 March 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 24 April 2020 / Published: 29 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges in Applied Human Biometeorology)
Weather and climate conditions can be decisive regarding travel plans or outdoor events, especially for sport events. The Olympic Games 2020, postponed to 2021, will take place in Tokyo at a time which is considered to be the hottest and most humid time of the year. However, a part of the athletic competitions is relocated to the northern city Sapporo. Therefore, it is important to quantify thermal comfort for different occasions and destinations and make the results accessible to visitors and sport attendees. The following analysis will quantify and compare thermal comfort and heat stress between Sapporo and Tokyo using thermal indices like the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature and the modified Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET and mPET). The results reveal different precipitation patterns for the cities. While a higher precipitation rate appears in Sapporo during winter, the precipitation rate is higher in Tokyo during summer. PET and mPET exhibit a greater probability of heat stress conditions in Tokyo during the Olympic Games, whereas Sapporo has more moderate values for the same period. The Climate-Tourism/Transfer-Information-Scheme (CTIS) integrates and simplifies climate information and makes them comprehensible for non-specialists. The CTIS of Tokyo illustrates lower suitable conditions for “Heat stress”, “Sunny days” and “Sultriness”. Transferring parts of the athletics competition to a northern city is thus more convenient for athletes, staff members and spectators. Hence, heat stress can be avoided and an acceptable outdoor stay is ensured. Overall, this quantification and comparison of the thermal conditions in Sapporo and Tokyo reveal limitations but also possibilities for the organizers of the Olympic Games. Furthermore it can be used to raise awareness for promoting or arranging countermeasures and heat mitigation at specific events and destinations, if necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: thermal comfort; heat stress; modified Physiologically Equivalent Temperature; Climate- Tourism/Transfer-Information-Scheme; sport events; Olympics; countermeasures; mitigation thermal comfort; heat stress; modified Physiologically Equivalent Temperature; Climate- Tourism/Transfer-Information-Scheme; sport events; Olympics; countermeasures; mitigation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wu, Y.; Graw, K.; Matzarakis, A. Comparison of Thermal Comfort between Sapporo and Tokyo—The Case of the Olympics 2020. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 444. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11050444

AMA Style

Wu Y, Graw K, Matzarakis A. Comparison of Thermal Comfort between Sapporo and Tokyo—The Case of the Olympics 2020. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(5):444. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11050444

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wu, Yuting; Graw, Kathrin; Matzarakis, Andreas. 2020. "Comparison of Thermal Comfort between Sapporo and Tokyo—The Case of the Olympics 2020" Atmosphere 11, no. 5: 444. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11050444

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