Next Article in Journal
Assessment of a Coastal Offshore Wind Climate by Means of Mesoscale Model Simulations Considering High-Resolution Land Use and Sea Surface Temperature Data Sets
Next Article in Special Issue
Examining the Direct and Indirect Effects of Climatic Variables on Plague Dynamics
Previous Article in Journal
Does Air Pollution Influence COVID-19 Outbreaks?
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Contribution Rate of Driving Factors and Their Interactions to Temperature in the Yangtze River Delta Region
Article

Climate Change and the Pattern of the Hot Spots of War in Ancient China

1
School of Geographical Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China
2
Department of Geography, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2020, 11(4), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11040378
Received: 15 March 2020 / Revised: 10 April 2020 / Accepted: 11 April 2020 / Published: 13 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change, Climatic Extremes, and Human Societies in the Past)
Quantitative research on climate change and war hot spots throughout history is lacking. In this study, the spatial distribution and dynamic process of war hot spots under different climatic phases in imperial China (1–1911 CE) are revealed using Emerging Hot Spot Analysis (EHSA), based on the Global Moran’s Index for testing the degree of spatial autocorrelation or dependency. The results show that: (1) Battles were significantly clustered regardless of any climatic mode or war category. (2) Hot spots for all war were generally located in the Loess Plateau and the North China Plain during warm and wet periods, but in the Central Plain, the Jianghuai region, and the lower reaches of the Yangtze River/Yangtze River Delta during cold and dry conditions. (3) Hot spots for agri-nomadic conflict have similar patterns as those for all war, whereas rebellion hot spots expanded outward during warm and wet intervals yet contracted inward during cold and dry stages. These findings, by providing insightful evidence into the spatiotemporal patterns of war under the movements of climatic-ecological zones and geopolitical variations in ancient China, can be a starting point for future exploration of the long-term relationship between climate change and social security. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; war; imperial China; Global Moran’s I; Emerging Hot Spot Analysis climate change; war; imperial China; Global Moran’s I; Emerging Hot Spot Analysis
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, S.; Zhang, D.D.; Li, J. Climate Change and the Pattern of the Hot Spots of War in Ancient China. Atmosphere 2020, 11, 378. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11040378

AMA Style

Zhang S, Zhang DD, Li J. Climate Change and the Pattern of the Hot Spots of War in Ancient China. Atmosphere. 2020; 11(4):378. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11040378

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Shengda, David D. Zhang, and Jinbao Li. 2020. "Climate Change and the Pattern of the Hot Spots of War in Ancient China" Atmosphere 11, no. 4: 378. https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos11040378

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop