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Particulate Emissions of Euro 4 Motorcycles and Sampling Considerations

1
European Commission—Joint Research Centre, 21027 Ispra (VA), Italy
2
Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics, Aristotle University Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070421
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Emissions and the Atmosphere)
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Abstract

The scientific literature indicates that solid particle number (SPN) emissions of motorcycles are usually higher than that of passenger cars. The L-category (e.g., mopeds, motorcycles) Euro 4 and 5 environmental steps were designed to reduce the emissions of particulate matter and ozone precursors such as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. In this study the SPN emissions of one moped and eight motorcycles, all fulfilling the Euro 4 standards, were measured with a SPN measurement system employing a catalytic stripper to minimize volatile artefacts. Although the particulate matter mass emissions were <1.5 mg/km for all vehicles tested, two motorcycles and the moped were close to the SPN limit for passenger cars (6 × 1011 particles/km with sizes larger than 23 nm) and four motorcycles exceeded the limit by a factor of up to four. The measurement repeatability was satisfactory (deviation from the mean 10%) and concentration differences between tailpipe and dilution tunnel were small, indicating that performing robust SPN measurements for regulatory control purposes is feasible. However, steady state tests with the moped showed major differences between the tailpipe and the dilution tunnel sampling points for sub-23 nm particles. Thus, the measurement procedures of particles for small displacement engine mopeds and motorcycles need to be better defined for a possible future introduction in regulations. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; powered two-wheelers; L-category; solid particle number (SPN); particulate matter (PM) mass; artefacts; tailpipe; dilution tunnel (CVS); WMTC; sub-23 nm air pollution; powered two-wheelers; L-category; solid particle number (SPN); particulate matter (PM) mass; artefacts; tailpipe; dilution tunnel (CVS); WMTC; sub-23 nm
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Giechaskiel, B.; Zardini, A.A.; Lähde, T.; Perujo, A.; Kontses, A.; Ntziachristos, L. Particulate Emissions of Euro 4 Motorcycles and Sampling Considerations. Atmosphere 2019, 10, 421.

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