Special Issue "Transport Emissions and the Atmosphere"

A special issue of Atmosphere (ISSN 2073-4433).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Nicholas C. Surawski Website E-Mail
University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, Australia
Interests: transport emissions; air quality; transport-air quality nexus; air pollution control; combustion

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

The online journal Atmosphere is looking for contributions to a special issue on Transport Emissions and the Atmosphere (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/atmosphere/special_issues/transport_emissions). Emissions from transport continue to play a critical role in determining air quality outcomes in many cities worldwide which underscores the need for new approaches to address the transport-air quality nexus. At present, the transportation sector is in a state of transition and is moving away from conventional internal combustion engines to more sustainable technologies involving alternative fuels and vehicle electrification, for example. The goal for this Special Issue is to capture current state-of-the-art in the transport emissions field for the purpose of informing the design of cost-effective air pollution control programs targeting the transportation sector. As a result, the focus of this Special Issue is, necessarily, broad with contributions from a range of topics being useful. This includes, but is not limited to, contributions regarding the air quality impacts of:

  • alternative fuels
  • alternative powertrains
  • alternative engine technologies
  • shipping
  • aviation
  • and on and off-road transport

Both experimental or modelling studies, or some combination of both, are welcome. The deadline for submissions is 31 May 2019.

Dr. Nicholas C. Surawski
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Atmosphere is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • transport emissions
  • alternative fuels
  • alternative powertrains
  • alternative engine technologies
  • air quality
  • air pollution control

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Real-World Pollutant Emissions and Fuel Consumption of Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Latest Emissions Control
Atmosphere 2019, 10(9), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10090535 - 10 Sep 2019
Abstract
Heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) comprise a key source of road transport emissions and energy consumption worldwide mainly due to the growth of road freight traffic during the last two decades. Addressing their air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions is therefore required, while accurate [...] Read more.
Heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDTs) comprise a key source of road transport emissions and energy consumption worldwide mainly due to the growth of road freight traffic during the last two decades. Addressing their air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions is therefore required, while accurate emission factors are needed to logistically optimize their operation. This study characterizes real-world emissions and fuel consumption (FC) of HDDTs and investigates the factors that affect their performance. Twenty-two diesel-fueled, Euro IV to Euro VI, HDDTs of six different manufacturers were measured in the road network of the Hong Kong metropolitan area, using portable emission measurement systems (PEMS). The testing routes included urban, highway and mixed urban/highway driving. The data collected corresponds to a wide range of driving, operating, and ambient conditions. Real-world distance- and energy-based emission levels are presented in a comparative manner to capture the effect of after-treatment technologies and the role of the evolution of Euro standards on emissions performance. The emission factors’ uncertainty is analyzed. The impact of speed, road grade and vehicle weight loading on FC and emissions is investigated. An analysis of diesel particulate filter (DPF) regenerations and ammonia (NH3) slip events are presented along with the study of Nitrous oxide (N2O) formation. The results reveal deviations of real-world HDDTs emissions from emission limits, as well as the significant impact of different operating and driving factors on their performance. The occasional high levels of N2O emissions from selective catalytic reduction equipped HDDTs is also revealed, an issue that has not been thoroughly considered so far. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Emissions and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle
Expanding the Theory of Planned Behaviour to Reveal Urban Residents’ Pro-Environment Travel Behaviour
Atmosphere 2019, 10(8), 467; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10080467 - 15 Aug 2019
Abstract
Exploring the mechanism that influences the choice of urban public travel mode is an important policy research topic that can promote urban residents’ pro-environment travel (PET) behaviour and relieve the pressure on urban traffic and environmental problems. By expanding the theory of planned [...] Read more.
Exploring the mechanism that influences the choice of urban public travel mode is an important policy research topic that can promote urban residents’ pro-environment travel (PET) behaviour and relieve the pressure on urban traffic and environmental problems. By expanding the theory of planned behaviour by considering the effects of the quality of public transport service and individual behaviour, this paper establishes a mixed PET behaviour model. Grounded theory is used to analyse data obtained from in-depth interviews, with the aim of determining the relationships among different attributes of the quality of public transport service and PET. An empirical examination in the form of a questionnaire was conducted in Changsha, China, to obtain the intensity and mechanism of various factors influencing pro-environment behaviour decision-making. The results reveal three new pieces of information. First, the influence of many psychological variables (except subjective norms) is consistent with the prediction results of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), and the predictions of the model are accurate. More specifically, intention (0.535) and habit (0.354) are key factors in PET behaviour, while attitude (0.527) has the most significant effect on intention towards PET behaviour. Second, the perceived service quality of public transport has a direct and significant impact on intention towards PET behaviour. Satisfaction with public transport service quality exerts a mediating effect on perceived service quality and PET behaviour. More specifically, operation and management (0.808) and vehicle environment (0.809) have the most important influence on intention towards PET behaviour. Last but not least, the extent of the influence of PET behaviour varies based on travellers’ demographic characteristics. The driving age, income and ownership of private cars show the greatest impact. The perceived service quality of public transport and travellers’ social and economic characteristics all play roles in the psychology of travel decisions, and are associated with PET behaviour on several distinct levels. From the perspectives of passenger psychology, public transport service quality and personal attributes of passengers, this paper provides a scientific basis for decision-making in transportation systems and the formulation of traffic intervention strategies to promote voluntary public reductions in carbon-intensive travel behaviour. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Emissions and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Strategies for Selecting Eco-Routing in a Small City
Atmosphere 2019, 10(8), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10080448 - 04 Aug 2019
Abstract
This research aims to find the most ecological itineraries for urban mobility in a small city (eco-routes), where distances are rather short, but car dependence is really high. A real life citywide survey was carried out in the city of Caceres (Spain) with [...] Read more.
This research aims to find the most ecological itineraries for urban mobility in a small city (eco-routes), where distances are rather short, but car dependence is really high. A real life citywide survey was carried out in the city of Caceres (Spain) with almost 100,000 inhabitants. Research was done on alternating routes, traffic, times of day, and weather conditions. The output of the study was to assess fuel consumption, CO2, and regulated pollutant emissions for different type of vehicles, routes, and drivers. The results show that in the case studied, urban roads had fewer emissions (CO2 and pollutants) but there was an increase in the population affected by pollutants. On the contrary, bypasses reduced travel time and congestion but increased fuel consumption and emissions. Traffic conditions had a greater influence on fuel consumption in petrol vehicles than diesel ones. Therefore, there must be a balanced distribution of traffic in order to minimize congestion, and at the same time to reduce emissions and the number of people affected by harmful pollution levels. There should be a combination of regulatory measures in traffic policies in order to achieve that balance by controlling access to city centres, limiting parking spaces, pedestrianization, and lowering traffic speeds in sensitive areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Emissions and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle
Particulate Emissions of Euro 4 Motorcycles and Sampling Considerations
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070421 - 21 Jul 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The scientific literature indicates that solid particle number (SPN) emissions of motorcycles are usually higher than that of passenger cars. The L-category (e.g., mopeds, motorcycles) Euro 4 and 5 environmental steps were designed to reduce the emissions of particulate matter and ozone precursors [...] Read more.
The scientific literature indicates that solid particle number (SPN) emissions of motorcycles are usually higher than that of passenger cars. The L-category (e.g., mopeds, motorcycles) Euro 4 and 5 environmental steps were designed to reduce the emissions of particulate matter and ozone precursors such as nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons. In this study the SPN emissions of one moped and eight motorcycles, all fulfilling the Euro 4 standards, were measured with a SPN measurement system employing a catalytic stripper to minimize volatile artefacts. Although the particulate matter mass emissions were <1.5 mg/km for all vehicles tested, two motorcycles and the moped were close to the SPN limit for passenger cars (6 × 1011 particles/km with sizes larger than 23 nm) and four motorcycles exceeded the limit by a factor of up to four. The measurement repeatability was satisfactory (deviation from the mean 10%) and concentration differences between tailpipe and dilution tunnel were small, indicating that performing robust SPN measurements for regulatory control purposes is feasible. However, steady state tests with the moped showed major differences between the tailpipe and the dilution tunnel sampling points for sub-23 nm particles. Thus, the measurement procedures of particles for small displacement engine mopeds and motorcycles need to be better defined for a possible future introduction in regulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Emissions and the Atmosphere)
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Open AccessArticle
Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Alternative Fuels for Western Australia’s Transport Sector
Atmosphere 2019, 10(7), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos10070398 - 15 Jul 2019
Abstract
Alternative fuels for the transport sector are being emphasized due to energy security and environmental issues. Possible alternative fuel options need to be assessed to realize their potential to alleviate environmental burdens before policy formulations. Western Australia (WA) is dominated by private cars, [...] Read more.
Alternative fuels for the transport sector are being emphasized due to energy security and environmental issues. Possible alternative fuel options need to be assessed to realize their potential to alleviate environmental burdens before policy formulations. Western Australia (WA) is dominated by private cars, accounting for around 72% vehicles with 87% of those using imported gasoline, and resulting in approximately 14% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the transport sector. There is an urgent need for WA to consider alternative transport fuels not only to reduce the environmental burden but also to avoid future energy security consequences. This study assesses the environmental life cycle assessment (ELCA) of transport fuel options suitable for WA. The study revealed that ethanol (E65), electric (EV) and plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) options can decrease global warming potential (GWP) by 40%, 29% and 14%, respectively, when compared to gasoline. The EV and PHEV also performed better than gasoline in the fossil fuel depletion (FFD) and water consumption (WC) impact categories. Gasoline, however, demonstrated better environmental performance in all the impact categories compared to hydrogen and that was mainly due to the high electricity requirement during the production of hydrogen. The use of platinum in hydrogen fuel cells and carbon fibre in the hydrogen tank for hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV) and Li-ion battery for EVs are the most important sources of environmental impacts. The findings of the study would aid the energy planners and decision makers in carrying out a comparative environmental assessment of the locally-sourced alternative fuels for WA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Transport Emissions and the Atmosphere)
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