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Article

Genetic Diversity within Snap Beans and Their Relation to Dry Beans

1
Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, 4017 Ag & Life Sciences Bldg., Corvallis, OR 97331, USA
2
Department of Horticulture, University of Sulaimani, P.O. Box 334 Sulaimani, Iraq
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2018, 9(12), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9120587
Received: 13 October 2018 / Revised: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 28 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics of Plant Domestication and Crop Evolution)
Two hundred forty-six snap bean genotypes and 49 dry beans representing both centers of domestication and six bean races with materials from Europe, Asia, and the Americas were genotyped using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. The data was analyzed for expected heterozygosity, K-means clustering, principal components, phylogenetic relationships, and population substructure. When all gene pools of snap bean were assembled, the expected heterozygosity was roughly equivalent to a carefully chosen panel of dry beans representing all bean races and centers of domestication demonstrating the genetic richness of snap materials in total. K-means clustering and K = 2 structure analysis showed significant mixing of gene pools in the European and American commercial snap materials and the dominance of the Andean center of domestication among commercial contemporary snap beans. Conversely, the same analysis showed that Chinese, Iberian, and heirloom materials were underrepresented in contemporary materials. Further, Structure analysis revealed eight distinct groups within snap beans. Two showed strong kinship to the Middle American center of domestication, three to the Andean center of domestication, and three showed admixture between the two centers. Snap beans may have been independently derived from dry beans more than once and from both centers. Overall, we identified eight potential germplasm pools for snap bean. View Full-Text
Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris; common bean; green bean; phylogenetics; single nucleotide polymorphism; principal components; Structure; K-means clustering; expected heterozygosity; gene pools; domestication Phaseolus vulgaris; common bean; green bean; phylogenetics; single nucleotide polymorphism; principal components; Structure; K-means clustering; expected heterozygosity; gene pools; domestication
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wallace, L.; Arkwazee, H.; Vining, K.; Myers, J.R. Genetic Diversity within Snap Beans and Their Relation to Dry Beans. Genes 2018, 9, 587. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9120587

AMA Style

Wallace L, Arkwazee H, Vining K, Myers JR. Genetic Diversity within Snap Beans and Their Relation to Dry Beans. Genes. 2018; 9(12):587. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9120587

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wallace, Lyle; Arkwazee, Haidar; Vining, Kelly; Myers, James R. 2018. "Genetic Diversity within Snap Beans and Their Relation to Dry Beans" Genes 9, no. 12: 587. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9120587

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