Next Article in Journal
Assessing Genetic Diversity for a Pre-Breeding Program in Piaractus mesopotamicus by SNPs and SSRs
Previous Article in Journal
A Super-Clustering Approach for Fully Automated Single Particle Picking in Cryo-EM
Previous Article in Special Issue
Yeast as a Tool for Deeper Understanding of Human Manganese-Related Diseases
Open AccessReview

Sneaking Out for Happy Hour: Yeast-Based Approaches to Explore and Modulate Immune Response and Immune Evasion

1
Univ. Brest, Inserm, EFS, UMR 1078, GGB, F-29200 Brest, France
2
Univ. Paris 7, Inserm, UMR, 1162 Paris, France
3
Chemistry, Modelling and Imaging for Biology, CNRS UMR9187, Inserm U1196, Institut Curie, Univ. Paris-Sud, Univ. Paris Saclay, F-91405 Orsay, France
4
Infectiologie et Santé Publique, INRA, Univ. de Tours, UMR1282 Nouzilly, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(9), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090667
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 26 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 31 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humanized Yeast Models)
Many pathogens (virus, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) have developed a wide variety of mechanisms to evade their host immune system. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has successfully been used to decipher some of these immune evasion strategies. This includes the cis-acting mechanism that limits the expression of the oncogenic Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-encoded EBNA1 and thus of antigenic peptides derived from this essential but highly antigenic viral protein. Studies based on budding yeast have also revealed the molecular bases of epigenetic switching or recombination underlying the silencing of all except one members of extended families of genes that encode closely related and highly antigenic surface proteins. This mechanism is exploited by several parasites (that include pathogens such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Candida, or Pneumocystis) to alternate their surface antigens, thereby evading the immune system. Yeast can itself be a pathogen, and pathogenic fungi such as Candida albicans, which is phylogenetically very close to S. cerevisiae, have developed stealthiness strategies that include changes in their cell wall composition, or epitope-masking, to control production or exposure of highly antigenic but essential polysaccharides in their cell wall. Finally, due to the high antigenicity of its cell wall, yeast has been opportunistically exploited to create adjuvants and vectors for vaccination. View Full-Text
Keywords: yeast; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; immune system; immune evasion; adjuvant for vaccines; yeast cell wall; G-quadruplexes (G4); G4 ligands; nucleolin (NCL); Epstein–Barr virus (EBV); oncogenic viruses yeast; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; immune system; immune evasion; adjuvant for vaccines; yeast cell wall; G-quadruplexes (G4); G4 ligands; nucleolin (NCL); Epstein–Barr virus (EBV); oncogenic viruses
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Angrand, G.; Quillévéré, A.; Loaëc, N.; Daskalogianni, C.; Granzhan, A.; Teulade-Fichou, M.-P.; Fahraeus, R.; Prado Martins, R.; Blondel, M. Sneaking Out for Happy Hour: Yeast-Based Approaches to Explore and Modulate Immune Response and Immune Evasion. Genes 2019, 10, 667.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop