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Open AccessArticle

Assessing Genetic Diversity for a Pre-Breeding Program in Piaractus mesopotamicus by SNPs and SSRs

1
Aquaculture Center of Unesp, São Paulo State University (Unesp), Jaboticabal, SP 14884-900, Brazil
2
Laboratorio Mixto de Biotecnología Acuática - Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas - Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación productiva de Santa Fe. Centro Científico y Tecnológico Acuario del Río Paraná, Rosario, Santa Fe 2000, Argentina
3
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Rosario, Santa Fe 2000, Argentina
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Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University (Unesp), Botucatu, SP 18618-970, Brazil
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Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (USC), ES27002 Lugo, Spain
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Instituto de Acuicultura, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (USC), 15705 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
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São Paulo State University (Unesp), School of Sciences, Bauru, SP 17033-360, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2019, 10(9), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10090668
Received: 29 July 2019 / Revised: 28 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 31 August 2019
The pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is a Neotropical fish with remarkable productive performance for aquaculture. Knowledge of genetic resources in Neotropical fish is essential for their applications in breeding programs. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity of seven farmed populations of pacu which will constitute the basis for a broodstock foundation for coming breeding programs in Brazil. Analysis of one wild population (Paraná River) was used as a reference to compare genetic parameters in the farmed populations. The analyses were performed using 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and 8 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. No significant differences in genetic diversity between populations estimated through the number of alleles and allelic richness, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and minimum allele frequency were detected (p > 0.05). Low genetic diversity was observed in all farmed stocks and the wild population. Moreover, we detected low genetic structure when comparing farmed and wild populations for SNPs (FST = 0.07; K = 3) and SSRs (FST = 0.08; K = 2). Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) demonstrated that genetic variation was mostly within populations. Kinship analysis showed that most fish farms included related individuals at a proportion of at least 25%. Our results suggest that the basal broodstock for pacu breeding programs should be founded with individuals from different fish farms for higher genetic diversity and to avoid inbreeding risks. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquaculture; genetic variability; inbreeding; breeding programs aquaculture; genetic variability; inbreeding; breeding programs
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mastrochirico-Filho, V.A.; del Pazo, F.; Hata, M.E.; Villanova, G.V.; Foresti, F.; Vera, M.; Martínez, P.; Porto-Foresti, F.; Hashimoto, D.T. Assessing Genetic Diversity for a Pre-Breeding Program in Piaractus mesopotamicus by SNPs and SSRs. Genes 2019, 10, 668.

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