Plant genome evolution can be very complex and challenging to describe, even within a genus. Mechanisms that underlie genome variation are complex and can include whole-genome duplications, gene duplication and/or loss, and, importantly, multiple chromosomal rearrangements. Lupins (Lupinus
) diverged from other legumes approximately 60 mya. In contrast to New World lupins, Old World lupins show high variability not only for chromosome numbers (2n = 32–52), but also for the basic chromosome number (x = 5–9, 13) and genome size. The evolutionary basis that underlies the karyotype evolution in lupins remains unknown, as it has so far been impossible to identify individual chromosomes. To shed light on chromosome changes and evolution, we used comparative chromosome mapping among 11 Old World lupins, with Lupinus angustifolius
as the reference species. We applied set of L. angustifolius
-derived bacterial artificial chromosome clones for fluorescence in situ hybridization. We demonstrate that chromosome variations in the species analyzed might have arisen from multiple changes in chromosome structure and number. We hypothesize about lupin karyotype evolution through polyploidy and subsequent aneuploidy. Additionally, we have established a cytogenomic map of L. angustifolius
along with chromosome markers that can be used for related species to further improve comparative studies of crops and wild lupins.
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