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Genes 2019, 10(4), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10040259

Impact of Chromosomal Rearrangements on the Interpretation of Lupin Karyotype Evolution

1
Department of Genomics, Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 60-479 Poznan, Poland
2
Department of Biometry and Bioinformatics, Institute of Plant Genetics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 60-479 Poznan, Poland
3
Department of Plant Anatomy and Cytology, University of Silesia in Katowice, 40-032 Katowice, Poland
4
Center for Applied Genetic Technologies, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 1 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genomics of Plant Domestication and Crop Evolution)
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Abstract

Plant genome evolution can be very complex and challenging to describe, even within a genus. Mechanisms that underlie genome variation are complex and can include whole-genome duplications, gene duplication and/or loss, and, importantly, multiple chromosomal rearrangements. Lupins (Lupinus) diverged from other legumes approximately 60 mya. In contrast to New World lupins, Old World lupins show high variability not only for chromosome numbers (2n = 32–52), but also for the basic chromosome number (x = 5–9, 13) and genome size. The evolutionary basis that underlies the karyotype evolution in lupins remains unknown, as it has so far been impossible to identify individual chromosomes. To shed light on chromosome changes and evolution, we used comparative chromosome mapping among 11 Old World lupins, with Lupinus angustifolius as the reference species. We applied set of L. angustifolius-derived bacterial artificial chromosome clones for fluorescence in situ hybridization. We demonstrate that chromosome variations in the species analyzed might have arisen from multiple changes in chromosome structure and number. We hypothesize about lupin karyotype evolution through polyploidy and subsequent aneuploidy. Additionally, we have established a cytogenomic map of L. angustifolius along with chromosome markers that can be used for related species to further improve comparative studies of crops and wild lupins.
Keywords: Lupinus; lupin; chromosome; pseudomolecule; cytogenomic map; karyotype structure; evolution; BAC; FISH; comparative chromosome mapping Lupinus; lupin; chromosome; pseudomolecule; cytogenomic map; karyotype structure; evolution; BAC; FISH; comparative chromosome mapping
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Susek, K.; Bielski, W.; Czyż, K.B.; Hasterok, R.; Jackson, S.A.; Wolko, B.; Naganowska, B. Impact of Chromosomal Rearrangements on the Interpretation of Lupin Karyotype Evolution. Genes 2019, 10, 259.

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