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Open AccessArticle

Genome Sequencing of Cladobotryum protrusum Provides Insights into the Evolution and Pathogenic Mechanisms of the Cobweb Disease Pathogen on Cultivated Mushroom

1
Engineering Research Center of Chinese Ministry of Education for Edible and Medicinal Fungi, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China
2
Department of Plant Protection, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China
3
BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China; China National GeneBank, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Genes 2019, 10(2), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10020124
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 4 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) Sequencing)
Cladobotryum protrusum is one of the mycoparasites that cause cobweb disease on cultivated edible mushrooms. However, the molecular mechanisms of evolution and pathogenesis of C. protrusum on mushrooms are largely unknown. Here, we report a high-quality genome sequence of C. protrusum using the single-molecule, real-time sequencing platform of PacBio and perform a comparative analysis with closely related fungi in the family Hypocreaceae. The C. protrusum genome, the first complete genome to be sequenced in the genus Cladobotryum, is 39.09 Mb long, with an N50 of 4.97 Mb, encoding 11,003 proteins. The phylogenomic analysis confirmed its inclusion in Hypocreaceae, with its evolutionary divergence time estimated to be ~170.1 million years ago. The genome encodes a large and diverse set of genes involved in secreted peptidases, carbohydrate-active enzymes, cytochrome P450 enzymes, pathogen–host interactions, mycotoxins, and pigments. Moreover, C. protrusum harbors arrays of genes with the potential to produce bioactive secondary metabolites and stress response-related proteins that are significant for adaptation to hostile environments. Knowledge of the genome will foster a better understanding of the biology of C. protrusum and mycoparasitism in general, as well as help with the development of effective disease control strategies to minimize economic losses from cobweb disease in cultivated edible mushrooms. View Full-Text
Keywords: Cladobotryum protrusum; mycoparasite; cobweb disease; de novo assembly; SMRT sequencing Cladobotryum protrusum; mycoparasite; cobweb disease; de novo assembly; SMRT sequencing
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Sossah, F.L.; Liu, Z.; Yang, C.; Okorley, B.A.; Sun, L.; Fu, Y.; Li, Y. Genome Sequencing of Cladobotryum protrusum Provides Insights into the Evolution and Pathogenic Mechanisms of the Cobweb Disease Pathogen on Cultivated Mushroom. Genes 2019, 10, 124.

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