Since ancient times, the importance of physical activity (PA) and of a wholesome diet for human health has been clearly recognized. However, only recently, it has been acknowledged that PA can reverse at least some of the unwanted effects of a sedentary lifestyle, contributing to the treatment of pathologies such as hypertension and diabetes, to the delay of aging and neurodegeneration, and even to the improvement of immunity and cognitive processes. At the same time, the cellular and molecular bases of these effects are beginning to be uncovered. The original research articles and reviews published in this Special Issue on “Genetic and Epigenetic Modulation of Cell Functions by Physical Exercise” focus on different aspects of the genetics and molecular biology of PA effects on health and, in addition, on the effects of different genotypes on the ability to perform PA. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
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