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Writing Histone Monoubiquitination in Human Malignancy—The Role of RING Finger E3 Ubiquitin Ligases

Translational Oncology Group, School of Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia
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Genes 2019, 10(1), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10010067
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Histone Modification Enzymes and Long Noncoding RNAs in Cancer)
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Abstract

There is growing evidence highlighting the importance of monoubiquitination as part of the histone code. Monoubiquitination, the covalent attachment of a single ubiquitin molecule at specific lysines of histone tails, has been associated with transcriptional elongation and the DNA damage response. Sites function as scaffolds or docking platforms for proteins involved in transcription or DNA repair; however, not all sites are equal, with some sites resulting in actively transcribed chromatin and others associated with gene silencing. All events are written by E3 ubiquitin ligases, predominantly of the RING (really interesting new gene) finger type. One of the most well-studied events is monoubiquitination of histone H2B at lysine 120 (H2Bub1), written predominantly by the RING finger complex RNF20-RNF40 and generally associated with active transcription. Monoubiquitination of histone H2A at lysine 119 (H2AK119ub1) is also well-studied, its E3 ubiquitin ligase constituting part of the Polycomb Repressor Complex 1 (PRC1), RING1B-BMI1, associated with transcriptional silencing. Both modifications are activated as part of the DNA damage response. Histone monoubiquitination is a key epigenomic event shaping the chromatin landscape of malignancy and influencing how cells respond to DNA damage. This review discusses a number of these sites and the E3 RING finger ubiquitin ligases that write them. View Full-Text
Keywords: E3 ligase; RING finger; monoubiquitination; histone; chromatin; RNF20; RNF40; polycomb repressor complex 1; RING1B; BRCA1 E3 ligase; RING finger; monoubiquitination; histone; chromatin; RNF20; RNF40; polycomb repressor complex 1; RING1B; BRCA1
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Marsh, D.J.; Dickson, K.-A. Writing Histone Monoubiquitination in Human Malignancy—The Role of RING Finger E3 Ubiquitin Ligases. Genes 2019, 10, 67.

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