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ATPe Dynamics in Protozoan Parasites. Adapt or Perish

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Institute of Biological Chemistry and Physicochemistry (IQUIFIB) “Prof. Alejandro C. Paladini”, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Buenos Aires 956, Argentina
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Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Department of Biological Chemistry, Chair of Biological Chemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires 956, Argentina
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Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, Department of Biodiversity and Experimental Biology, University of Buenos Aires, Intendente Güiraldes, Buenos Aires 2160, Argentina
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Chair of Analytical Chemistry and Physicochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires 956, Argentina
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Biochemistry Research Institute of La Plata (INIBIOLP) “Prof. Dr. Rodolfo R. Brenner”, Faculty of Medical Sciences, National University of La Plata, National Scientific and Technical Research Council, Av. 60 y Av., La Plata 120, Argentina
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National University of La Plata, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Av. 60 y Av., La Plata 120, Argentina
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UMR-S1134, Integrated Biology of Red Blood Cells, INSERM, Paris Diderot University, Sorbonne Paris Cité, University of La Réunion, University of Antilles, F-75015 Paris, France
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National Institute of Blood Transfusion (INTS), Laboratory of Excellence GR-Ex, F-75015 Paris, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Co-first authors.
Genes 2019, 10(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes10010016
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Membrane Proteins in Parasitic Protozoa)
In most animals, transient increases of extracellular ATP (ATPe) are used for physiological signaling or as a danger signal in pathological conditions. ATPe dynamics are controlled by ATP release from viable cells and cell lysis, ATPe degradation and interconversion by ecto-nucleotidases, and interaction of ATPe and byproducts with cell surface purinergic receptors and purine salvage mechanisms. Infection by protozoan parasites may alter at least one of the mechanisms controlling ATPe concentration. Protozoan parasites display their own set of proteins directly altering ATPe dynamics, or control the activity of host proteins. Parasite dependent activation of ATPe conduits of the host may promote infection and systemic responses that are beneficial or detrimental to the parasite. For instance, activation of organic solute permeability at the host membrane can support the elevated metabolism of the parasite. On the other hand ecto-nucleotidases of protozoan parasites, by promoting ATPe degradation and purine/pyrimidine salvage, may be involved in parasite growth, infectivity, and virulence. In this review, we will describe the complex dynamics of ATPe regulation in the context of protozoan parasite–host interactions. Particular focus will be given to features of parasite membrane proteins strongly controlling ATPe dynamics. This includes evolutionary, genetic and cellular mechanisms, as well as structural-functional relationships. View Full-Text
Keywords: parasite; membrane proteins; host–parasite interaction; transport; pathogenesis; evolution parasite; membrane proteins; host–parasite interaction; transport; pathogenesis; evolution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lauri, N.; Bazzi, Z.; Alvarez, C.L.; Leal Denis, M.F.; Schachter, J.; Herlax, V.; Ostuni, M.A.; Schwarzbaum, P.J. ATPe Dynamics in Protozoan Parasites. Adapt or Perish. Genes 2019, 10, 16.

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