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Signals from the Niche: Insights into the Role of IGF-1 and IL-6 in Modulating Skeletal Muscle Fibrosis

1
DAHFMO-Unit of Histology and Medical Embryology, Sapienza University of Rome, Laboratory Affiliated to Istituto Pasteur Italia—Fondazione Cenci Bolognetti, Via A. Scarpa, 14, 00161 Rome, Italy
2
Istituto di Istologia ed Embriologia, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, 00168 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cells 2019, 8(3), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/cells8030232
Received: 11 February 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 11 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tissue Regeneration and Fibrosis)
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Abstract

Muscle regeneration, characterized by the activation and proliferation of satellite cells and other precursors, is accompanied by an inflammatory response and the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM), necessary to remove cellular debris and to mechanically support newly generated myofibers and activated satellite cells. Muscle repair can be considered concluded when the tissue architecture, vascularization, and innervation have been restored. Alterations in these connected mechanisms can impair muscle regeneration, leading to the replacement of functional muscle tissue with a fibrotic scar. In the present review, we will discuss the cellular mediators of fibrosis and how the altered expression and secretion of soluble mediators, such as IL-6 and IGF-1, can modulate regulatory networks involved in the altered regeneration and fibrosis during aging and diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: skeletal muscle; fibrosis; muscle regeneration; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; aging; Interleukin-6; insulin-like growth factor 1 skeletal muscle; fibrosis; muscle regeneration; Duchenne muscular dystrophy; aging; Interleukin-6; insulin-like growth factor 1
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Forcina, L.; Miano, C.; Scicchitano, B.M.; Musarò, A. Signals from the Niche: Insights into the Role of IGF-1 and IL-6 in Modulating Skeletal Muscle Fibrosis. Cells 2019, 8, 232.

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