Functional Characterization of Ubiquitin-Like Core Autophagy Protein ATG12 in Dictyostelium discoideum
AbstractAutophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradative pathway that is crucial for cellular homeostasis. During autophagy, the core autophagy protein ATG12 plays, together with ATG5 and ATG16, an essential role in the expansion of the autophagosomal membrane. In this study we analyzed gene replacement mutants of atg12 in Dictyostelium discoideum AX2 wild-type and ATG16‾ cells. RNAseq analysis revealed a strong enrichment of, firstly, autophagy genes among the up-regulated genes and, secondly, genes implicated in cell motility and phagocytosis among the down-regulated genes in the generated ATG12‾, ATG16‾ and ATG12‾/16‾ cells. The mutant strains showed similar defects in fruiting body formation, autolysosome maturation, and cellular viability, implying that ATG12 and ATG16 act as a functional unit in canonical autophagy. In contrast, ablation of ATG16 or of ATG12 and ATG16 resulted in slightly more severe defects in axenic growth, macropinocytosis, and protein homeostasis than ablation of only ATG12, suggesting that ATG16 fulfils an additional function in these processes. Phagocytosis of yeast, spore viability, and maximal cell density were much more affected in ATG12‾/16‾ cells, indicating that both proteins also have cellular functions independent of each other. In summary, we show that ATG12 and ATG16 fulfil autophagy-independent functions in addition to their role in canonical autophagy. View Full-Text
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Fischer, S.; Rijal, R.; Frommolt, P.; Wagle, P.; Konertz, R.; Faix, J.; Meßling, S.; Eichinger, L. Functional Characterization of Ubiquitin-Like Core Autophagy Protein ATG12 in Dictyostelium discoideum. Cells 2019, 8, 72.
Fischer S, Rijal R, Frommolt P, Wagle P, Konertz R, Faix J, Meßling S, Eichinger L. Functional Characterization of Ubiquitin-Like Core Autophagy Protein ATG12 in Dictyostelium discoideum. Cells. 2019; 8(1):72.Chicago/Turabian Style
Fischer, Sarah; Rijal, Ramesh; Frommolt, Peter; Wagle, Prerana; Konertz, Roman; Faix, Jan; Meßling, Susanne; Eichinger, Ludwig. 2019. "Functional Characterization of Ubiquitin-Like Core Autophagy Protein ATG12 in Dictyostelium discoideum." Cells 8, no. 1: 72.
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