Injury to the central or peripheral nervous systems leads to the loss of cognitive and/or sensorimotor capabilities, which still lacks an effective treatment. Tissue engineering in the post-injury brain represents a promising option for cellular replacement and rescue, providing a cell scaffold for either transplanted or resident cells. Tissue engineering relies on scaffolds for supporting cell differentiation and growth with recent emphasis on stimuli responsive scaffolds, sometimes called smart scaffolds. One of the representatives of this material group is piezoelectric scaffolds, being able to generate electrical charges under mechanical stimulation, which creates a real prospect for using such scaffolds in non-invasive therapy of neural tissue. This paper summarizes the recent knowledge on piezoelectric materials used for tissue engineering, especially neural tissue engineering. The most used materials for tissue engineering strategies are reported together with the main achievements, challenges, and future needs for research and actual therapies. This review provides thus a compilation of the most relevant results and strategies and serves as a starting point for novel research pathways in the most relevant and challenging open questions.
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