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Nanoscale Mechanical and Mechanically-Induced Electrical Properties of Silicon Nanowires

Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
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Crystals 2019, 9(5), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9050240
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 29 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Elasticity and Micro- and Macro- Plasticity of Crystals)
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Abstract

Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was employed to examine the deformation and phase transformation of mono-crystalline Si nanowire (SiNW) subjected to tensile stress. The techniques of coordination number (CN) and centro-symmetry parameter (CSP) were used to monitor and elucidate the detailed mechanisms of the phase transformation throughout the loading process in which the evolution of structural phase change and the dislocation pattern were identified. Therefore, the relationship between phase transformation and dislocation pattern was established and illustrated. In addition, the electrical resistance and conductivity of SiNW were evaluated by using the concept of virtual electric source during loading and unloading similar to in situ electrical measurements. The effects of temperature on phase transformation of mono-crystalline SiNWs for three different crystallographically oriented surfaces were investigated and discussed. Simulation results show that, with the increase of applied stress, the dislocations are initiated first and then the phase transformation such that the total energy of the system tends to approach a minimum level. Moreover, the electrical resistance of (001)- rather than (011)- and (111)-oriented SiNWs was changed before failure. As the stress level of the (001) SiNW reaches 24 GPa, a significant amount of metallic Si-II and amorphous phases is produced from the semiconducting Si-I phase and leads to a pronounced decrease of electrical resistance. It was also found that as the temperature of the system is higher than 500 K, the electrical resistance of (001) SiNW is significantly reduced through the process of axial elongation. View Full-Text
Keywords: mono-crystalline SiNWs; molecular dynamics; coordination number; centro-symmetry parameter; phase transformation; dislocation; conductivity; resistance mono-crystalline SiNWs; molecular dynamics; coordination number; centro-symmetry parameter; phase transformation; dislocation; conductivity; resistance
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Lin, Y.-H.; Chen, T.-C. Nanoscale Mechanical and Mechanically-Induced Electrical Properties of Silicon Nanowires. Crystals 2019, 9, 240.

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