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Computers, Volume 9, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 5 articles

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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Computers in 2019
Computers 2020, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers9010005 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 133
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Novel Security Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks with Cooperative Communication
Computers 2020, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers9010004 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 146
Abstract
This paper builds upon the foundation and clarifies specifications for a necessary security protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) with cooperative communications. It is designed to enhance performance and resiliency against cyber-attacks. Recent literature has shown that developing a WSN with Cooperative Communication [...] Read more.
This paper builds upon the foundation and clarifies specifications for a necessary security protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) with cooperative communications. It is designed to enhance performance and resiliency against cyber-attacks. Recent literature has shown that developing a WSN with Cooperative Communication greatly increases the performance of the network, but also exposes new vulnerabilities. The technique operates by transmitting packets of data to neighboring relay nodes in a cooperative fashion to reach the destination. In this paper, we consider security issues in WSNs with cooperative communication on each layer of the OSI model: physical layer, data link layer, network layer, service (topology) layer, and application layer. For each layer, we clarify the main task, enumerate the main attacks and threats, specify the primary security approaches and techniques (if any), and discuss possible new attacks and problems that may arise with the use of cooperative communications. Furthermore, we show for some attacks (e.g., jamming, packet dropping, and wormhole) that using cooperative communication improves the network resiliency and reliability. Finally, we propose a security protocol that addresses many of these shortcomings, while outlining the remaining issues that need further work and research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IoT: Security, Privacy and Best Practices)
Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Boundary of P-Set and Intelligent Acquisition for Two Types of Information Fusion
Computers 2020, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers9010003 - 16 Jan 2020
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Abstract
The development of information technology brings the challenge of data redundancy and data shortage to information fusion. Based on the dynamic boundary characteristics of p-set, this paper analyzes the structure and generation of p-augmented matrix, and then analyzes the dynamic generation of information [...] Read more.
The development of information technology brings the challenge of data redundancy and data shortage to information fusion. Based on the dynamic boundary characteristics of p-set, this paper analyzes the structure and generation of p-augmented matrix, and then analyzes the dynamic generation of information equivalence class, and then proposes an intelligent acquisition algorithm of information equivalence class based on matrix reasoning. In addition, this paper analyzes two types of information fusion, namely information redundancy fusion and information supplement fusion. Then, the relationship among redundant information fusion, supplementary information fusion, and information equivalence classes is analyzed. Finally, this paper presents the application of intelligent acquisition of information equivalence class in information retrieval. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from IIKII 2019 Conferences in Computers)
Open AccessReview
DVFS and Its Architectural Simulation Models for Improving Energy Efficiency of Complex Embedded Systems in Early Design Phase
Computers 2020, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers9010002 - 07 Jan 2020
Viewed by 375
Abstract
Dealing with resource constraints is an inevitable feature of embedded systems. Power and performance are the main concerns beside others. Pre-silicon analysis of power and performance in today’s complex embedded designs is a big challenge. Although RTL (Register-Transfer Level) models are more precise [...] Read more.
Dealing with resource constraints is an inevitable feature of embedded systems. Power and performance are the main concerns beside others. Pre-silicon analysis of power and performance in today’s complex embedded designs is a big challenge. Although RTL (Register-Transfer Level) models are more precise and reliable, system-level modeling enables the power and performance analysis of complex and dense designs in the early design phase. Virtual prototypes of systems prepared through architectural simulation provide a means of evaluating non-existing systems with more flexibility and minimum cost. Efficient interplay between power and performance is a key feature within virtual platforms. This article focuses on dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS), which is a well-known system-level low-power design technique together with its more efficient implementations modeled through architectural simulation. With advent of new computing paradigms and modern application domains with strict resource demands, DVFS and its efficient hardware-managed solutions get even more highlighted. This is mainly because they can react faster to resource demands and thus reduce induced overhead. To that end, they entail an effective collaboration between software and hardware. A case review in the end wraps up the discussed topics. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Privacy Preserving Cloud-Based K-NN Search Scheme with Lightweight User Loads
Computers 2020, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/computers9010001 - 01 Jan 2020
Viewed by 343
Abstract
With the growing popularity of cloud computing, it is convenient for data owners to outsource their data to a cloud server. By utilizing the massive storage and computational resources in cloud, data owners can also provide a platform for users to make query [...] Read more.
With the growing popularity of cloud computing, it is convenient for data owners to outsource their data to a cloud server. By utilizing the massive storage and computational resources in cloud, data owners can also provide a platform for users to make query requests. However, due to the privacy concerns, sensitive data should be encrypted before outsourcing. In this work, a novel privacy preserving K-nearest neighbor (K-NN) search scheme over the encrypted outsourced cloud dataset is proposed. The problem is about letting the cloud server find K nearest points with respect to an encrypted query on the encrypted dataset, which was outsourced by data owners, and return the searched results to the querying user. Comparing with other existing methods, our approach leverages the resources of the cloud more by shifting most of the required computational loads, from data owners and query users, to the cloud server. In addition, there is no need for data owners to share their secret key with others. In a nutshell, in the proposed scheme, data points and user queries are encrypted attribute-wise and the entire search algorithm is performed in the encrypted domain; therefore, our approach not only preserves the data privacy and query privacy but also hides the data access pattern from the cloud server. Moreover, by using a tree structure, the proposed scheme could accomplish query requests in sub-liner time, according to our performance analysis. Finally, experimental results demonstrate the practicability and the efficiency of our method. Full article
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