Next Article in Journal
The Mode of Stem Cell Division Is Dependent on the Differential Interaction of β-Catenin with the Kat3 Coactivators CBP or p300
Next Article in Special Issue
Harnessing Induced Essentiality: Targeting Carbonic Anhydrase IX and Angiogenesis Reduces Lung Metastasis of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Xenografts
Previous Article in Journal
Furanoic Lipid F-6, A Novel Anti-Cancer Compound that Kills Cancer Cells by Suppressing Proliferation and Inducing Apoptosis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Mechanisms behind Temsirolimus Resistance Causing Reactivated Growth and Invasive Behavior of Bladder Cancer Cells In Vitro
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Increased Soluble CrkL in Serum of Breast Cancer Patients Is Associated with Advanced Disease

1
Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030, USA
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current affiliation: Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.
Cancers 2019, 11(7), 961; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers11070961
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Invasion and Metastasis)
  |  
PDF [2465 KB, uploaded 9 July 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Over-expression of Crk-like protein (CrkL), an intracellular adaptor protein, in breast cancer biopsies has been linked to poor prognosis. CrkL can be secreted from cancer cells binding to β1 integrin on the cell membrane. In this study, we evaluated, for the first time, the levels of soluble CrkL in serum of breast cancer patients. Expression of CrkL and secreted fractions from human breast cancer cell lines and clinical patient samples were assessed by immunohistochemistry and Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA). CrkL levels in tissues and sera of patients with different disease stages were compared and statistically analyzed by Chi-square test and Student’s t-test. Culture media from human breast cancer cell lines SUM159, MDA-MB231, and MCF7 showed over a 21-, 15-, and 11-fold higher concentration of soluble CrkL as compared to normal breast epithelium cell line MCF10A. Expression of CrkL was elevated in 85% of breast tumor tissue sections. Serum levels of CrkL were significantly higher in breast cancer patients than in healthy donors. All patients with metastatic disease had significantly elevated concentration of soluble CrkL in the serum with on average three-fold increase from the baseline. The data suggest that soluble fraction of CrkL can be further evaluated as a serum biomarker for advanced disease in breast cancer patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: CrkL; soluble fraction; blood serum levels; breast cancer CrkL; soluble fraction; blood serum levels; breast cancer
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Srinivasan, S.; Godin, B. Increased Soluble CrkL in Serum of Breast Cancer Patients Is Associated with Advanced Disease. Cancers 2019, 11, 961.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Cancers EISSN 2072-6694 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top