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Increased Soluble CrkL in Serum of Breast Cancer Patients Is Associated with Advanced Disease

Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Houston Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current affiliation: Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.
Cancers 2019, 11(7), 961;
Received: 17 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 9 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Invasion and Metastasis)
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Over-expression of Crk-like protein (CrkL), an intracellular adaptor protein, in breast cancer biopsies has been linked to poor prognosis. CrkL can be secreted from cancer cells binding to β1 integrin on the cell membrane. In this study, we evaluated, for the first time, the levels of soluble CrkL in serum of breast cancer patients. Expression of CrkL and secreted fractions from human breast cancer cell lines and clinical patient samples were assessed by immunohistochemistry and Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA). CrkL levels in tissues and sera of patients with different disease stages were compared and statistically analyzed by Chi-square test and Student’s t-test. Culture media from human breast cancer cell lines SUM159, MDA-MB231, and MCF7 showed over a 21-, 15-, and 11-fold higher concentration of soluble CrkL as compared to normal breast epithelium cell line MCF10A. Expression of CrkL was elevated in 85% of breast tumor tissue sections. Serum levels of CrkL were significantly higher in breast cancer patients than in healthy donors. All patients with metastatic disease had significantly elevated concentration of soluble CrkL in the serum with on average three-fold increase from the baseline. The data suggest that soluble fraction of CrkL can be further evaluated as a serum biomarker for advanced disease in breast cancer patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: CrkL; soluble fraction; blood serum levels; breast cancer CrkL; soluble fraction; blood serum levels; breast cancer

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Srinivasan, S.; Godin, B. Increased Soluble CrkL in Serum of Breast Cancer Patients Is Associated with Advanced Disease. Cancers 2019, 11, 961.

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