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Cancers 2018, 10(11), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers10110444

Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Organ-Specific Metastases in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma

Department of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607, USA
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 13 November 2018 / Published: 15 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Tumor Microenvironment of High Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer)
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Abstract

Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the most predominant type of ovarian carcinoma, the deadliest gynecologic malignancy. It is typically diagnosed late when the cancer has already metastasized. Transcoelomic metastasis is the most predominant mechanism of dissemination from epithelial ovarian carcinoma, although both hematogenously and lymphogenously spread metastases also occur. In this review, we describe molecular mechanisms known to regulate organ-specific metastasis from epithelial ovarian carcinoma. We begin by discussing the sites colonized by metastatic ovarian carcinoma and rank them in the order of prevalence. Next, we review the mechanisms regulating the transcoelomic metastasis. Within this chapter, we specifically focus on the mechanisms that were demonstrated to regulate peritoneal adhesion—one of the first steps in the transcoelomic metastatic cascade. Furthermore, we describe mechanisms of the transcoelomic metastasis known to regulate colonization of specific sites within the peritoneal cavity, including the omentum. Mechanisms underlying hematogenous and lymphogenous metastatic spread are less comprehensively studied in ovarian cancer, and we summarize mechanisms that were identified to date. Lastly, we discuss the outcomes of the clinical trials that attempted to target some of the mechanisms described in this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: ovarian cancer; organ-specific metastases; peritoneal adhesion; mesothelium; omentum; peritoneal wall; lymph node; liver; lung; gene expression ovarian cancer; organ-specific metastases; peritoneal adhesion; mesothelium; omentum; peritoneal wall; lymph node; liver; lung; gene expression
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Barbolina, M.V. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Organ-Specific Metastases in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma. Cancers 2018, 10, 444.

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