With the rapid development of Micro-electro-mechanical Systems (MEMS) fabrication technologies, many microelectrodes with various structures and functions have been designed and fabricated for applications in biomedical research, diagnosis and treatment through electrical stimulation and electrophysiological signal recording. The flexible MEMS microelectrodes exhibit excellent characteristics in many aspects beyond stiff microelectrodes based on silicon or metal, including: lighter weight, smaller volume, better conforming to neural tissue and lower fabrication cost. In this paper, we reviewed the key technologies in flexible MEMS microelectrodes for neural interface in recent years, including: design and fabrication technology, flexible MEMS microelectrodes with fluidic channels and electrode–tissue interface modification technology for performance improvement. Furthermore, the future directions of flexible MEMS microelectrodes for neural interface were described, including transparent and stretchable microelectrodes integrated with multi-functional aspects and next-generation electrode–tissue interface modifications, which facilitated electrode efficacy and safety during implantation. Finally, we predict that the relationships between micro fabrication techniques, and biomedical engineering and nanotechnology represented by flexible MEMS microelectrodes for neural interface, will open a new gate to better understanding the neural system and brain diseases.
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