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Open AccessArticle

An Integrated Glucose Sensor with an All-Solid-State Sodium Ion-Selective Electrode for a Minimally Invasive Glucose Monitoring System

Central Research Laboratories, Sysmex Corporation, 4-4-4 Takatsukadai, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2271, Japan
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Academic Editors: Kazunori Hoshino and Emmanuel Quevy
Micromachines 2015, 6(7), 831-841; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi6070831
Received: 2 May 2015 / Revised: 16 June 2015 / Accepted: 25 June 2015 / Published: 30 June 2015
We developed a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system that uses a microneedle to permeate the skin surface and a small hydrogel to accumulate interstitial fluid glucose. The measurement of glucose and sodium ion levels in the hydrogel is required for estimating glucose levels in blood; therefore, we developed a small, enzyme-fixed glucose sensor with a high-selectivity, all-solid-state, sodium ion-selective electrode (ISE) integrated into its design. The glucose sensor immobilized glucose oxidase showed a good correlation between the glucose levels in the hydrogels and the reference glucose levels (r > 0.99), and exhibited a good precision (coefficient of variation = 2.9%, 0.6 mg/dL). In the design of the sodium ISEs, we used the insertion material Na0.33MnO2 as the inner contact layer and DD16C5 exhibiting high Na+/K+ selectivity as the ionophore. The developed sodium ISE exhibited high selectivity (\( \log \,k^{pot}_{Na,K} = -2.8\)) and good potential stability. The sodium ISE could measure 0.4 mM (10−3.4 M) sodium ion levels in the hydrogels containing 268 mM (10−0.57 M) KCl. The small integrated sensor (ϕ < 10 mm) detected glucose and sodium ions in hydrogels simultaneously within 1 min, and it exhibited sufficient performance for use as a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system. View Full-Text
Keywords: all-solid-state; sodium ion sensor; ion-selective electrode (ISE); glucose sensor; diabetes mellitus; interstitial fluid; minimally invasive glucose monitoring all-solid-state; sodium ion sensor; ion-selective electrode (ISE); glucose sensor; diabetes mellitus; interstitial fluid; minimally invasive glucose monitoring
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Kojima, J.; Hosoya, S.; Suminaka, C.; Hori, N.; Sato, T. An Integrated Glucose Sensor with an All-Solid-State Sodium Ion-Selective Electrode for a Minimally Invasive Glucose Monitoring System. Micromachines 2015, 6, 831-841.

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