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Toxins 2019, 11(1), 45;

Autophagy and Apoptosis Interact to Modulate T-2 Toxin-Induced Toxicity in Liver Cells

1,* and 1,4,*
College of Veterinary Medicine, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
Hunan Collaborative Innovation for Utilization of Botanical Function Ingredients, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
Hunan Engineering Research Center of Veterinary Drug, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Mycotoxin Exposure: Emerging Risks to Human Health)
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T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin generated by Fusarium species which has been shown to be highly toxic to human and animals. T-2 toxin induces apoptosis in various tissues/organs. Apoptosis and autophagy are two closely interconnected processes, which are important for maintaining physiological homeostasis as well as pathogenesis. Here, for the first time, we demonstrated that T-2 toxins induce autophagy in human liver cells (L02). We demonstrated that T-2 toxin induce acidic vesicular organelles formation, concomitant with the alterations in p62/SQSTM1 and LC3-phosphatidylethanolamine conjugate (LC3-II) and the enhancement of the autophagic flux. Using mRFP-GFP-LC3 by lentiviral transduction, we showed T-2 toxin-mediated lysosomal fusion and the formation of autophagosomes in L02 cells. The formation of autophagosomes was further confirmed by transmission electron microcopy. While T-2 toxin induced both autophagy and apoptosis, autophagy appears to be a leading event in the response to T-2 toxin treatment, reflecting its protective role in cells against cellular damage. Activating autophagy by rapamycin (RAPA) inhibited apoptosis, while suppressing autophagy by chloroquine greatly enhanced the T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis, suggesting the crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that autophagy plays a role in protecting cells from T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis suggesting that autophagy may be manipulated for the alleviation of toxic responses induced by T-2 toxin. View Full-Text
Keywords: T-2 toxin; toxicity; autophagy; apoptosis T-2 toxin; toxicity; autophagy; apoptosis

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Wu, J.; Zhou, Y.; Yuan, Z.; Yi, J.; Chen, J.; Wang, N.; Tian, Y. Autophagy and Apoptosis Interact to Modulate T-2 Toxin-Induced Toxicity in Liver Cells. Toxins 2019, 11, 45.

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