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Open AccessArticle

Food Matrix Effects of Polyphenol Bioaccessibility from Almond Skin during Simulated Human Digestion

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche ed Ambientali, University of Messina, Sal. Sperone 31, 98166 Messina, Italy
2
The Model Gut, Institute of Food Research, Norwich Research Park, Colney Lane, Norwich NR4 7UA, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(9), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8090568
Received: 11 July 2016 / Revised: 17 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 August 2016 / Published: 15 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polyphenols for Cancer Treatment or Prevention)
The goal of the present study was to quantify the rate and extent of polyphenols released in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) from natural (NS) and blanched (BS) almond skins. A dynamic gastric model of digestion which provides a realistic simulation of the human stomach was used. In order to establish the effect of a food matrix on polyphenols bioaccessibility, NS and BS were either digested in water (WT) or incorporated into home-made biscuits (HB), crisp-bread (CB) and full-fat milk (FM). Phenolic acids were the most bioaccessible class (68.5% release from NS and 64.7% from BS). WT increased the release of flavan-3-ols (p < 0.05) and flavonols (p < 0.05) from NS after gastric plus duodenal digestion, whereas CB and HB were better vehicles for BS. FM lowered the % recovery of polyphenols, the free total phenols and the antioxidant status in the digestion medium, indicating that phenolic compounds could bind protein present in the food matrix. The release of bioactives from almond skins could explain the beneficial effects associated with almond consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: almond skin; food matrix; simulated human digestion; polyphenols; bioaccessibility almond skin; food matrix; simulated human digestion; polyphenols; bioaccessibility
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mandalari, G.; Vardakou, M.; Faulks, R.; Bisignano, C.; Martorana, M.; Smeriglio, A.; Trombetta, D. Food Matrix Effects of Polyphenol Bioaccessibility from Almond Skin during Simulated Human Digestion. Nutrients 2016, 8, 568.

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