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Open AccessArticle

Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35–74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries

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Institute of Biological Chemistry and Nutrition, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70599, Germany
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Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich-Schiller-University, Jena 07743, Germany
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Department of Molecular Toxicology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke (DIfE), Nuthetal 14558, Germany
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National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), BA Bilthoven 3721, The Netherlands
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Institute for Biomedical Aging Research, Leipold-Franzens-University, Innsbruck 6020, Austria
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Institute for Nutritional Sciences and Physiology, University for Health Sciences, Hall in Tirol 6060, Austria
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Unit of Cellular Biochemistry and Biology, University of Namur, Namur 5000, Belgium
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BioTeSys GmbH, Esslingen 73728, Germany
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Institute of Biological Research and Biotechnology, National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF), Athens 11635, Greece
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Department of Experimental Pathology, University of Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy
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Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw 02-093, Poland
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Molecular Toxicology, Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz 78457, Germany
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Department of Applied Nutritional Science/Dietetics, Institute of Nutritional Medicine, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70599, Germany
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German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Munich-Neuherberg 85764, Germany
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German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Berlin 13357, Germany
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NutriAct-Competence Cluster Nutrition Research Berlin-Potsdam, Nuthetal 14458, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2016, 8(10), 614; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8100614
Received: 19 July 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 30 September 2016
Blood micronutrient status may change with age. We analyzed plasma carotenoids, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol and their associations with age, demographic characteristics, and dietary habits (assessed by a short food frequency questionnaire) in a cross-sectional study of 2118 women and men (age-stratified from 35 to 74 years) of the general population from six European countries. Higher age was associated with lower lycopene and α-/β-carotene and higher β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin, α-/γ-tocopherol, and retinol levels. Significant correlations with age were observed for lycopene (r = −0.248), α-tocopherol (r = 0.208), α-carotene (r = −0.112), and β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.125; all p < 0.001). Age was inversely associated with lycopene (−6.5% per five-year age increase) and this association remained in the multiple regression model with the significant predictors (covariables) being country, season, cholesterol, gender, smoking status, body mass index (BMI (kg/m2)), and dietary habits. The positive association of α-tocopherol with age remained when all covariates including cholesterol and use of vitamin supplements were included (1.7% vs. 2.4% per five-year age increase). The association of higher β-cryptoxanthin with higher age was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for fruit consumption, whereas the inverse association of α-carotene with age remained in the fully adjusted multivariable model (−4.8% vs. −3.8% per five-year age increase). We conclude from our study that age is an independent predictor of plasma lycopene, α-tocopherol, and α-carotene. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoids; plasma; age; Europe; micronutrients; lycopene; retinol; tocopherols carotenoids; plasma; age; Europe; micronutrients; lycopene; retinol; tocopherols
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Stuetz, W.; Weber, D.; Dollé, M.E.T.; Jansen, E.; Grubeck-Loebenstein, B.; Fiegl, S.; Toussaint, O.; Bernhardt, J.; Gonos, E.S.; Franceschi, C.; Sikora, E.; Moreno-Villanueva, M.; Breusing, N.; Grune, T.; Bürkle, A. Plasma Carotenoids, Tocopherols, and Retinol in the Age-Stratified (35–74 Years) General Population: A Cross-Sectional Study in Six European Countries. Nutrients 2016, 8, 614.

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