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Systematic Review

Impact of Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions Provided by Nutrition and Exercise Practitioners for the Adult General Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Department of Exercise Science, Laramie County Community College, 1400 E College Drive, Cheyenne, WY 82007, USA
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Department of Kinesiology, Nutrition and Food Science, California State University Los Angeles, 5151 South University Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90032, USA
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Department of Movement Sciences, University of Idaho, 875 Perimeter Drive, Moscow, ID 83844, USA
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Department of Natural Sciences, School of Arts and Sciences, Lebanese American University, Beirut 10150, Lebanon
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Kinesiology Department, Point Loma Nazarene University, 3900 Lomaland Dr, San Diego, CA 92106, USA
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Gilead Sciences, 333 Lakeside Dr, Foster City, CA 94404, USA
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Evidence Analysis Center, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 120 S Riverside Plaza, Suite 2190, Chicago, IL 60606, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carlos Vasconcelos
Nutrients 2022, 14(9), 1729; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091729
Received: 25 February 2022 / Revised: 15 April 2022 / Accepted: 18 April 2022 / Published: 21 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Combined Nutrition and Exercise Interventions in Community Groups)
Healthy dietary intake and physical activity reduce the risk of non-communicable diseases. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the effect of interventions including both nutrition and physical activity provided by nutrition and exercise practitioners for adults in the general population (those without diagnosed disease). The MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and SportDiscus databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from 2010 until April 2021. Outcomes included physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, waist circumference, percent weight loss, quality of life (QoL) and adverse events. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methods were used to synthesize and grade evidence. Meta-analyses were stratified according to participant health status. The database search identified 11,205 articles, and 31 RCTs were included. Interventions increased physical activity amount [standardized mean difference (SMD) (95% CI): 0.25 (0.08, 0.43)] (low certainty evidence); increased vegetable intake [SMD (95% CI): 0.14 (0.05, 0.23)] (moderate certainty evidence); reduced waist circumference [MD (95% CI): −2.16 cm (−2.96, −1.36)] (high certainty evidence); and increased likelihood of achieving 5% weight loss for adults with overweight and obesity [relative risk (95% CI): 2.37 (1.76, 3.19)] (high certainty evidence). Very low and low certainty evidence described little-to-no effect on QoL or adverse events. Nutrition and exercise practitioners play key roles in facilitating positive lifestyle behaviors to reduce cardiometabolic disease risk in adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: primary prevention; nutrition; physical activity; nutritionists; counseling; systematic review; meta-analysis; randomized controlled trial primary prevention; nutrition; physical activity; nutritionists; counseling; systematic review; meta-analysis; randomized controlled trial
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nitschke, E.; Gottesman, K.; Hamlett, P.; Mattar, L.; Robinson, J.; Tovar, A.; Rozga, M. Impact of Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions Provided by Nutrition and Exercise Practitioners for the Adult General Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients 2022, 14, 1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091729

AMA Style

Nitschke E, Gottesman K, Hamlett P, Mattar L, Robinson J, Tovar A, Rozga M. Impact of Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions Provided by Nutrition and Exercise Practitioners for the Adult General Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2022; 14(9):1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091729

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nitschke, Erin, Kimberly Gottesman, Peggy Hamlett, Lama Mattar, Justin Robinson, Ashley Tovar, and Mary Rozga. 2022. "Impact of Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions Provided by Nutrition and Exercise Practitioners for the Adult General Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Nutrients 14, no. 9: 1729. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14091729

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