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Application of the Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 and the Dietary Inflammatory Index for Assessing Maternal Dietary Quality in Japan: A Single-Center Birth Cohort Study

1
Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
2
Department of Nutritional Epidemiology and Shokuiku, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Tokyo 162-8636, Japan
3
Comprehensive Reproductive Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
4
Child and Family Nursing, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan
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Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, School of Public Health, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
6
Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, The Public Health Research Foundation, Tokyo 169-0051, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Licia Iacoviello
Nutrients 2021, 13(8), 2854; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082854
Received: 8 July 2021 / Revised: 12 August 2021 / Accepted: 16 August 2021 / Published: 19 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
The maternal diet can potentially influence the life-course health of the child. A poor-quality maternal diet creates nutrient deficiencies and affects immune–metabolic regulation during pregnancy. The nutrient-based overall dietary quality can be assessed using the Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 (NRF9.3), which measures adherence to the national reference daily values of nutrient intake. Pro- and anti-inflammatory nutrient intake can be assessed using the energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII), a comprehensive index of diet-derived inflammatory capacity. Using these indices, we assessed the overall dietary quality and inflammatory potential of pregnant women during mid-gestation in an urban area of Japan (n = 108) and found that there was a strong inverse correlation between the NRF9.3 and E-DII scores. Comparison of the scores among the tertiles of NRF9.3 or E-DII indicated that dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin A, and magnesium mainly contributed to the variability of both indices. Intake of vegetables and fruits was positively associated with high NRF9.3 scores and negatively associated with high E-DII scores, after adjustment for maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and educational level. Consistent with the previous studies that used dietary pattern analysis, this study also demonstrated that vegetables and fruits were the food groups chiefly associated with high dietary quality and low inflammatory potential among pregnant Japanese women. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal dietary quality; NRF9.3; DII; pregnancy; DOHaD maternal dietary quality; NRF9.3; DII; pregnancy; DOHaD
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MDPI and ACS Style

Imai, C.; Takimoto, H.; Fudono, A.; Tarui, I.; Aoyama, T.; Yago, S.; Okamitsu, M.; Sasaki, S.; Mizutani, S.; Miyasaka, N.; Sato, N. Application of the Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 and the Dietary Inflammatory Index for Assessing Maternal Dietary Quality in Japan: A Single-Center Birth Cohort Study. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2854. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082854

AMA Style

Imai C, Takimoto H, Fudono A, Tarui I, Aoyama T, Yago S, Okamitsu M, Sasaki S, Mizutani S, Miyasaka N, Sato N. Application of the Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 and the Dietary Inflammatory Index for Assessing Maternal Dietary Quality in Japan: A Single-Center Birth Cohort Study. Nutrients. 2021; 13(8):2854. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082854

Chicago/Turabian Style

Imai, Chihiro, Hidemi Takimoto, Ayako Fudono, Iori Tarui, Tomoko Aoyama, Satoshi Yago, Motoko Okamitsu, Satoshi Sasaki, Shuki Mizutani, Naoyuki Miyasaka, and Noriko Sato. 2021. "Application of the Nutrient-Rich Food Index 9.3 and the Dietary Inflammatory Index for Assessing Maternal Dietary Quality in Japan: A Single-Center Birth Cohort Study" Nutrients 13, no. 8: 2854. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082854

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