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Article

Adequacy and Sources of Protein Intake among Pregnant Women in the United States, NHANES 2003–2012

Exponent, Inc., Center for Chemical Regulation and Food Safety, Washington, DC 20036, USA
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Academic Editor: Shanon L. Casperson
Nutrients 2021, 13(3), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030795
Received: 1 February 2021 / Revised: 24 February 2021 / Accepted: 25 February 2021 / Published: 28 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Limited information is available on protein intake and adequacy of protein intake among pregnant women. Using data from a sample of 528 pregnant women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 2003–2012, usual intake of protein (g/day and g/kg body weight (bw)/day) and prevalence of intake below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) by trimester of pregnancy were calculated using the National Cancer Institute method. Percent contributions to protein intake by source (i.e., plant and animal, including type of animal source) were also calculated. Mean usual intake of protein was 88 ± 4.3, 82 ± 3.1, and 82 ± 2.9 g/day among women in trimester 1, 2, and 3 of pregnancy, respectively, or 1.30 ± 0.10, 1.35 ± 0.06, and 1.35 ± 0.05 g/kg bw/day, respectively. An estimated 4.5% of women in the first trimester of pregnancy consumed less protein than the EAR of 0.66 g/kg bw/day; among women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, 12.1% and 12.8% of women, respectively, consumed less protein than the EAR of 0.88 g/kg bw/day. Animal sources of protein accounted for approximately 66% of total protein. Findings from this study show that one in eight women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy have inadequate intake of protein. Pregnant women should be encouraged to consume sufficient levels of protein from a variety of sources. View Full-Text
Keywords: dietary intake; nutrient intake adequacy; macronutrient; protein; maternal diet; pregnancy dietary intake; nutrient intake adequacy; macronutrient; protein; maternal diet; pregnancy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Murphy, M.M.; Higgins, K.A.; Bi, X.; Barraj, L.M. Adequacy and Sources of Protein Intake among Pregnant Women in the United States, NHANES 2003–2012. Nutrients 2021, 13, 795. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030795

AMA Style

Murphy MM, Higgins KA, Bi X, Barraj LM. Adequacy and Sources of Protein Intake among Pregnant Women in the United States, NHANES 2003–2012. Nutrients. 2021; 13(3):795. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030795

Chicago/Turabian Style

Murphy, Mary M., Kelly A. Higgins, Xiaoyu Bi, and Leila M. Barraj 2021. "Adequacy and Sources of Protein Intake among Pregnant Women in the United States, NHANES 2003–2012" Nutrients 13, no. 3: 795. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13030795

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