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Article

Protein Digests and Pure Peptides from Chia Seed Prevented Adipogenesis and Inflammation by Inhibiting PPARγ and NF-κB Pathways in 3T3L-1 Adipocytes

1
Departamento de Nutrição e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG 36570-900, Brazil
2
Department of Food Science & Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2021, 13(1), 176; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010176
Received: 31 October 2020 / Revised: 25 December 2020 / Accepted: 5 January 2021 / Published: 8 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds and Chronic Inflammation)
The objective was to evaluate the mechanisms of digested total proteins (DTP), albumin, glutelin, and pure peptides from chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) to prevent adipogenesis and its associated inflammation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Preadipocytes (3T3-L1) were treated during differentiation with either DTP or digested albumin or glutelin (1 mg/mL) or pure peptides NSPGPHDVALDQ and RMVLPEYELLYE (100 µM). Differentiated adipocytes also received DTP, digested albumin or glutelin (1 mg/mL), before (prevention) or after (inhibition) induced inflammation by addition of conditioned medium (CM) from inflamed macrophages. All treatments prevented adipogenesis, reducing more than 50% the expression of PPARγ and to a lesser extent lipoprotein lipase (LPL), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), lipase activity and triglycerides. Inflammation induced by CM was reduced mainly during prevention, while DTP decreased expression of NF-κB (−48.4%), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (−46.2%) and COX-2 (−64.5%), p < 0.05. Secretions of nitric oxide, PGE2 and TNFα were reduced by all treatments, p < 0.05. DTP reduced expressions of iNOS (−52.1%) and COX-2 (−66.4%). Furthermore, digested samples and pure peptides prevented adipogenesis by modulating PPARγ and additionally, preventing and even inhibiting inflammation in adipocytes by inhibition of PPARγ and NF-κB expression. These results highlight the effectiveness of digested total proteins and peptides from chia seed against adipogenesis complications in vitro. View Full-Text
Keywords: adipocytes; bioactive peptides; digested proteins; inflammation; obesity; Salvia hispanica L. adipocytes; bioactive peptides; digested proteins; inflammation; obesity; Salvia hispanica L.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grancieri, M.; Martino, H.S.D.; Gonzalez de Mejia, E. Protein Digests and Pure Peptides from Chia Seed Prevented Adipogenesis and Inflammation by Inhibiting PPARγ and NF-κB Pathways in 3T3L-1 Adipocytes. Nutrients 2021, 13, 176. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010176

AMA Style

Grancieri M, Martino HSD, Gonzalez de Mejia E. Protein Digests and Pure Peptides from Chia Seed Prevented Adipogenesis and Inflammation by Inhibiting PPARγ and NF-κB Pathways in 3T3L-1 Adipocytes. Nutrients. 2021; 13(1):176. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010176

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grancieri, Mariana, Hércia S.D. Martino, and Elvira Gonzalez de Mejia. 2021. "Protein Digests and Pure Peptides from Chia Seed Prevented Adipogenesis and Inflammation by Inhibiting PPARγ and NF-κB Pathways in 3T3L-1 Adipocytes" Nutrients 13, no. 1: 176. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010176

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