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Choline: An Essential Nutrient for Skeletal Muscle
Open AccessReview

The Relationship between Choline Bioavailability from Diet, Intestinal Microbiota Composition, and Its Modulation of Human Diseases

1
Instituto de Neurociencias del Principado de Asturias (INEUROPA), 33003 Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
2
Department of Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King’s College London, Denmark Hill, London SE5 8AF, UK
3
Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry of Dairy Products, Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA-CSIC), 33003 Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
4
Laboratory of Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Oviedo, Plaza Feijóo, s/n, 33003 Oviedo, Asturias, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2340; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082340
Received: 14 July 2020 / Revised: 28 July 2020 / Accepted: 30 July 2020 / Published: 5 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Choline: An Essential Nutrient for Human Health)
Choline is a water-soluble nutrient essential for human life. Gut microbial metabolism of choline results in the production of trimethylamine (TMA), which, upon absorption by the host is converted into trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in the liver. A high accumulation of both components is related to cardiovascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and chronic kidney disease. However, the relationship between the microbiota production of these components and its impact on these diseases still remains unknown. In this review, we will address which microbes contribute to TMA production in the human gut, the extent to which host factors (e.g., the genotype) and diet affect TMA production, and the colonization of these microbes and the reversal of dysbiosis as a therapy for these diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: choline; TMA; TMAO; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); cardiovascular disease (CVD); chronic kidney diseases (CKD); probiotics; gut microbiota; polyphenols; fecal microbiota transplantation choline; TMA; TMAO; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); cardiovascular disease (CVD); chronic kidney diseases (CKD); probiotics; gut microbiota; polyphenols; fecal microbiota transplantation
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Arias, N.; Arboleya, S.; Allison, J.; Kaliszewska, A.; Higarza, S.G.; Gueimonde, M.; Arias, J.L. The Relationship between Choline Bioavailability from Diet, Intestinal Microbiota Composition, and Its Modulation of Human Diseases. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2340.

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