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Effects of High Intensity Dynamic Resistance Exercise and Whey Protein Supplements on Osteosarcopenia in Older Men with Low Bone and Muscle Mass. Final Results of the Randomized Controlled FrOST Study

1
Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Henkestrasse 91, 91053 Erlangen, Germany
2
Faculty Medical and Life Sciences, University of Furtwangen, Neckarstrasse 1, 78054 Villingen-Schwenningen, Germany
3
Bernhard-Heine-Center for Locomotion Research, University of Würzburg, Brettreichstrasse 11, 97074 Würzburg, Germany
4
Department of Medicine III, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, University Hospital Erlangen, Ulmenweg 18, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2341; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082341
Received: 9 July 2020 / Revised: 31 July 2020 / Accepted: 4 August 2020 / Published: 5 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Rehabilitation in Older Patients with Disability)
The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of high intensity dynamic resistance exercise (HIT-DRT) and whey protein supplementation (WPS) on bone mineral density (BMD) and sarcopenia parameters in osteosarcopenic men. Men ≥ 72 years with osteosarcopenia (n = 43) were randomly assigned to a HIT-RT (HIT-RT: n = 21) or a non-training control group (n = 22). Supervised HIT-RT twice/week was applied for 18 months, while the control group maintained their habitual lifestyle. Supplying WPS, total protein intake amounted to 1.5–1.6 (HIT-RT) and 1.2 g/kg/body mass/d (control). Both groups were supplied with calcium and vitamin D. Primary study outcomes were BMD and the sarcopenia Z-score. After adjusting for multiplicity, we observed significant positive effects for sarcopenia Z-score (standardized mean difference (SMD): 1.40), BMD at lumbar spine (SMD: 0.72) and total hip (SMD: 0.72). In detail, effect sizes for skeletal muscle mass changes were very pronounced (1.97, p < 0.001), while effects for functional sarcopenia parameters were moderate (0.87, p = 0.008; handgrip strength) or low (0.39, p = 0.209; gait velocity). Apart from one man who reported short periods of temporary worsening of existing joint pain, no HIT-RT/WPS-related adverse effects or injuries were reported. We consider HIT-RT supported by whey protein supplementation as a feasible, attractive, safe and highly effective option to fight osteosarcopenia in older men. View Full-Text
Keywords: resistance exercise; osteopenia; sarcopenia; bone mineral density resistance exercise; osteopenia; sarcopenia; bone mineral density
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kemmler, W.; Kohl, M.; Jakob, F.; Engelke, K.; von Stengel, S. Effects of High Intensity Dynamic Resistance Exercise and Whey Protein Supplements on Osteosarcopenia in Older Men with Low Bone and Muscle Mass. Final Results of the Randomized Controlled FrOST Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 2341. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082341

AMA Style

Kemmler W, Kohl M, Jakob F, Engelke K, von Stengel S. Effects of High Intensity Dynamic Resistance Exercise and Whey Protein Supplements on Osteosarcopenia in Older Men with Low Bone and Muscle Mass. Final Results of the Randomized Controlled FrOST Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(8):2341. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082341

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kemmler, Wolfgang; Kohl, Matthias; Jakob, Franz; Engelke, Klaus; von Stengel, Simon. 2020. "Effects of High Intensity Dynamic Resistance Exercise and Whey Protein Supplements on Osteosarcopenia in Older Men with Low Bone and Muscle Mass. Final Results of the Randomized Controlled FrOST Study" Nutrients 12, no. 8: 2341. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082341

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