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Article

Association between Self-Reported Eating Rate, Energy Intake, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population

1
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre (CNRC), Singapore Institute of Food and Biotechnology Innovation (SIFBI), Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore 117599, Singapore
2
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117549, Singapore
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Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228, Singapore
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Department of Nutrition and Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117593, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(4), 1080; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041080
Received: 15 March 2020 / Revised: 9 April 2020 / Accepted: 10 April 2020 / Published: 13 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Eating faster is associated with greater body mass index (BMI), but less is known about the relationships between eating rate, energy intake, body composition, and cardio-metabolic risk factors in different Asian ethnic groups. Using data from the Singapore Multi-Ethnic Cohort (n = 7011; 21–75 y), we investigated associations between self-reported eating rate (SRER), with energy intake, body composition, blood pressure, and blood lipids. SRER and lifestyle was assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Multivariable models were used to examine the associations of SRER with energy intake, body composition, blood pressure, and blood lipids after adjusting for covariates. General and abdominal overweight were defined as BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 and waist circumference >90 cm (men) and > 80 cm (women), respectively. On average, faster eaters (vs. slower eaters) consumed 105 kcal/day more (p = 0.034), had ~5 kg higher body weight (p < 0.001), 1.3 kg/m2 higher BMI (p < 0.001), and 3.1 cm larger waist-circumference (p < 0.001). Faster eaters had significantly higher blood pressure, circulating triglycerides, and total-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio than slower eaters. Faster eaters were twice as likely to develop general (multivariable-OR: 2.2; 95% CI, 1.8–2.6; p < 0.001), and abdominal (OR: 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5–2.2; p < 0.001) overweight than slower eaters. This association was observed across all subgroups by age, sex, and ethnicity. Findings suggest that SRER is a robust behavioral marker for increased risk of higher energy intake, obesity, and poor cardio-metabolic health, and a modifiable behavioral risk-factor for obesity prevention. View Full-Text
Keywords: self-reported eating rate; energy intake; obesity; cardiovascular; multi-ethnic; Asia self-reported eating rate; energy intake; obesity; cardiovascular; multi-ethnic; Asia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Teo, P.S.; van Dam, R.M.; Whitton, C.; Tan, L.W.L.; Forde, C.G. Association between Self-Reported Eating Rate, Energy Intake, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1080. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041080

AMA Style

Teo PS, van Dam RM, Whitton C, Tan LWL, Forde CG. Association between Self-Reported Eating Rate, Energy Intake, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population. Nutrients. 2020; 12(4):1080. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041080

Chicago/Turabian Style

Teo, Pey S., Rob M. van Dam, Clare Whitton, Linda W.L. Tan, and Ciarán G. Forde. 2020. "Association between Self-Reported Eating Rate, Energy Intake, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Population" Nutrients 12, no. 4: 1080. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12041080

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