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Article

Mild to Moderate Iodine Deficiency and Inadequate Iodine Intake in Lactating Women in the Inland Area of Norway

1
Department of Research, Innlandet Hospital Trust, 2629 Lillehammer, Norway
2
Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, OsloMet–Oslo Metropolitan University, 0130 Oslo, Norway
3
Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, 0450 Oslo, Norway
4
Department of Medical Microbiology, Innlandet Hospital Trust, 2629 Lillehammer, Norway
5
Women’s Clinic at Lillehammer Hospital, Innlandet Hospital Trust, 2629 Lillehammer, Norway
6
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Aas, Norway
7
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0213 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(3), 630; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030630
Received: 20 January 2020 / Revised: 19 February 2020 / Accepted: 25 February 2020 / Published: 27 February 2020
Breastfed infants are dependent on an adequate supply of iodine in human milk for the production of thyroid hormones, necessary for development of the brain. Despite the importance of iodine for infant health, data on Norwegian lactating women are scarce. We measured iodine intake and evaluated iodine status and iodine knowledge among lactating women. From October to December 2018, 133 mother–infant pairs were recruited in a cross-sectional study through two public health care centers in Lillehammer and Gjøvik. Each of the women provided two human milk specimens, which were pooled, and one urine sample for analysis of iodine concentration. We used 24-h dietary recall and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to estimate short-term and habitual iodine intake from food and supplements. The median (P25, P75) human milk iodine concentration (HMIC) was 71 (45, 127) µg/L—of which, 66% had HMIC <100 µg/L. The median (P25, P75) urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was 80 µg/L (52, 141). The mean (± SD) 24-h iodine intake and habitual intake was 78 ± 79 µg/day and 75 ± 73 µg/day, respectively. In conclusion, this study confirms inadequate iodine intake and insufficient iodine status among lactating women in the inland area of Norway and medium knowledge awareness about iodine. View Full-Text
Keywords: Iodine; lactating women; Norway; breastfeeding; infants; iodine knowledge; human milk iodine concentration; iodine intake; iodine status; urinary iodine concentration Iodine; lactating women; Norway; breastfeeding; infants; iodine knowledge; human milk iodine concentration; iodine intake; iodine status; urinary iodine concentration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Groufh-Jacobsen, S.; Mosand, L.M.; Oma, I.; Sletten Bakken, K.; Stokke Solvik, B.; Lovise Folven Gjengedal, E.; Brantsæter, A.L.; Strand, T.A.; Henjum, S. Mild to Moderate Iodine Deficiency and Inadequate Iodine Intake in Lactating Women in the Inland Area of Norway. Nutrients 2020, 12, 630. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030630

AMA Style

Groufh-Jacobsen S, Mosand LM, Oma I, Sletten Bakken K, Stokke Solvik B, Lovise Folven Gjengedal E, Brantsæter AL, Strand TA, Henjum S. Mild to Moderate Iodine Deficiency and Inadequate Iodine Intake in Lactating Women in the Inland Area of Norway. Nutrients. 2020; 12(3):630. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030630

Chicago/Turabian Style

Groufh-Jacobsen, Synne, Lise Mette Mosand, Ingvild Oma, Kjersti Sletten Bakken, Beate Stokke Solvik, Elin Lovise Folven Gjengedal, Anne Lise Brantsæter, Tor Arne Strand, and Sigrun Henjum. 2020. "Mild to Moderate Iodine Deficiency and Inadequate Iodine Intake in Lactating Women in the Inland Area of Norway" Nutrients 12, no. 3: 630. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030630

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