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Impact of the Co-Administration of N-3 Fatty Acids and Olive Oil Components in Preclinical Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Models: A Mechanistic View

1
Nutrition Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago 8380000, Chile
2
Nutritional Sciences Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M2J4A6, Canada
3
Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology Program, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago 8380453, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020499
Received: 8 January 2020 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 11 February 2020 / Published: 15 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition and Metabolic (non-alcoholic) Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD))
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is present in approximately 25% of the population worldwide. It is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerol in the liver, which can progress to steatohepatitis with different degrees of fibrosis, stages that lack approved pharmacological therapies and represent an indication for liver transplantation with consistently increasing frequency. In view that hepatic steatosis is a reversible condition, effective strategies preventing disease progression were addressed using combinations of natural products in the preclinical high-fat diet (HFD) protocol (60% of fat for 12 weeks). Among them, eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:5n-3, DHA), DHA and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), or EPA plus hydroxytyrosol (HT) attained 66% to 83% diminution in HFD-induced steatosis, with the concomitant inhibition of the proinflammatory state associated with steatosis. These supplementations trigger different molecular mechanisms that modify antioxidant, antisteatotic, and anti-inflammatory responses, and in the case of DHA and HT co-administration, prevent NAFLD. It is concluded that future studies in NAFLD patients using combined supplementations such as DHA plus HT are warranted to prevent liver steatosis, thus avoiding its progression into more unmanageable stages of the disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: extra virgin olive oil; hydroxytyrosol; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease extra virgin olive oil; hydroxytyrosol; n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
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Valenzuela, R.; Videla, L.A. Impact of the Co-Administration of N-3 Fatty Acids and Olive Oil Components in Preclinical Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Models: A Mechanistic View. Nutrients 2020, 12, 499.

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