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Open AccessReview

Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia: Implications and Impact in Pregnancy, Fetal Development, and Early Childhood Parameters

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Departments of Internal Medicine, Medical Education, and Pathology, James H. Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
2
Internal Medicine, Building 2/Room 109, Quillen College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614, USA
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 447; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020447
Received: 26 December 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2020 / Accepted: 6 February 2020 / Published: 11 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dietary Iron, Iron Deficiency and Human Health )
A normal pregnancy consumes 500–800 mg of iron from the mother. Premenopausal women have a high incidence of marginal iron stores or iron deficiency (ID), with or without anemia, particularly in the less developed world. Although pregnancy is associated with a “physiologic” anemia largely related to maternal volume expansion; it is paradoxically associated with an increase in erythrocyte production and erythrocyte mass/kg. ID is a limiting factor for this erythrocyte mass expansion and can contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review summarizes erythrocyte and iron balance observed in pregnancy; its implications and impact on mother and child; and provides an overview of approaches to the recognition of ID in pregnancy and its management, including clinically relevant questions for further investigation.
Keywords: iron deficiency; pregnancy; iron deficiency anemia; laboratory testing; iron supplementation; iron balance iron deficiency; pregnancy; iron deficiency anemia; laboratory testing; iron supplementation; iron balance
MDPI and ACS Style

Means, R.T. Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia: Implications and Impact in Pregnancy, Fetal Development, and Early Childhood Parameters. Nutrients 2020, 12, 447.

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