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Open AccessArticle

Frequently Consumed Foods and Energy Contributions among Food Secure and Insecure U.S. Children and Adolescents

1
Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, 700 W State St, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
2
Epidemiology Program, University of Hawaii Cancer Center, 701 Ilalo St, Honolulu, HI 96813, USA
3
Department of Food and Nutrition, Dongduk Women’s University, 60 Hwarang-ro 13-gil, Wolgok 2(i)-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136714, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(2), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12020304
Received: 24 December 2019 / Revised: 14 January 2020 / Accepted: 20 January 2020 / Published: 23 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrition among Vulnerable Populations)
Food insecurity is associated with nutritional risk in children. This study identified and compared the most frequently consumed foods, beverages, and food groups and their contributions to energy intake among U.S. children and adolescents (6–11, 12–17 years) by food security status. Dietary intake from the day-1, 24-h dietary recall, and household child food security status were analyzed in the 2007–2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 8123). Foods and beverages were classified into food categories, ranked, and compared by weighted proportional frequency and energy contribution for food security groups by age. Significant differences between household child food security groups were determined using the Rao-Scott modified chi-square statistic. The weighted proportional frequency of beverages (including diet, sweetened, juice, coffee, and tea) and their energy was significantly higher among food insecure compared with food secure while the reverse was true for water frequency among 12–17 years. Beverage and mixed dish frequency were higher among food insecure compared with food secure 6–11 years while the reverse was true for frequency and energy from snacks. Frequency-differentiated intake patterns for beverages and snacks by food security across age groups may inform dietary recommendations, population-specific dietary assessment tools, interventions, and policy for food insecure children. View Full-Text
Keywords: food group intake; child food security; popularly consumed foods; low-resource children; adolescents; food intake; beverage intake; dietary intake; food insecurity; US children food group intake; child food security; popularly consumed foods; low-resource children; adolescents; food intake; beverage intake; dietary intake; food insecurity; US children
MDPI and ACS Style

Eicher-Miller, H.A.; Boushey, C.J.; Bailey, R.L.; Yang, Y.J. Frequently Consumed Foods and Energy Contributions among Food Secure and Insecure U.S. Children and Adolescents. Nutrients 2020, 12, 304.

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