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Article

Frequency of Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner and Incidence of Proteinuria: A Retrospective Cohort Study

1
Department of Nephrology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2–2-D11 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
2
Health and Counseling Center, Osaka University, 1–17 Machikaneyamacho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
3
Health Promotion and Regulation, Department of Health Promotion Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 1–17 Machikaneyamacho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3549; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113549
Received: 16 October 2020 / Revised: 10 November 2020 / Accepted: 10 November 2020 / Published: 19 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutritional Epidemiology)
Although multiple studies have revealed a close association of skipping breakfast with cardiometabolic diseases, few studies have reported its association with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Furthermore, there is scant reporting on the clinical impacts that skipping lunch and dinner has on cardiometabolic diseases and CKD. This retrospective cohort study, including 5439 female and 4674 male workers of a national university in Japan who underwent annual health checkups between January 2005 and March 2013, aimed to assess an association of frequencies of breakfast, lunch, and dinner with incidence of proteinuria (dipstick urinary protein ≥1+). The incidence of proteinuria was observed in 763 (14.0%) females and 617 (13.2%) males during the median 4.3 and 5.9 years of the observational period, respectively. In females, skipping breakfast as well as skipping dinner, but not lunch, were associated with the incidence of proteinuria (adjusted hazard ratios of breakfast frequency of “every day”, “sometimes”, and “rarely”: 1.00 (reference), 1.35 (1.09–1.66), and 1.54 (1.22–1.94), respectively; those of dinner frequency of “every day” and “≤sometimes”: 1.00 (reference) and 1.31 (1.00–1.72), respectively). However, no association was observed in male workers. Skipping breakfast and skipping dinner were identified as risk factors of proteinuria in females, but not in males. View Full-Text
Keywords: proteinuria; breakfast; lunch; dinner; retrospective cohort study proteinuria; breakfast; lunch; dinner; retrospective cohort study
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tomi, R.; Yamamoto, R.; Shinzawa, M.; Kimura, Y.; Fujii, Y.; Aoki, K.; Ozaki, S.; Yoshimura, R.; Taneike, M.; Nakanishi, K.; Nishida, M.; Yamauchi-Takihara, K.; Kudo, T.; Isaka, Y.; Moriyama, T. Frequency of Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner and Incidence of Proteinuria: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3549. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113549

AMA Style

Tomi R, Yamamoto R, Shinzawa M, Kimura Y, Fujii Y, Aoki K, Ozaki S, Yoshimura R, Taneike M, Nakanishi K, Nishida M, Yamauchi-Takihara K, Kudo T, Isaka Y, Moriyama T. Frequency of Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner and Incidence of Proteinuria: A Retrospective Cohort Study. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3549. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113549

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tomi, Ryohei; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Shinzawa, Maki; Kimura, Yoshiki; Fujii, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Katsunori; Ozaki, Shingo; Yoshimura, Ryuichi; Taneike, Manabu; Nakanishi, Kaori; Nishida, Makoto; Yamauchi-Takihara, Keiko; Kudo, Takashi; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Moriyama, Toshiki. 2020. "Frequency of Breakfast, Lunch, and Dinner and Incidence of Proteinuria: A Retrospective Cohort Study" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3549. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113549

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