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Zinc Deficiency—An Independent Risk Factor in the Pathogenesis of Haemorrhagic Stroke?

1
Clinic of Gastroenterology, City Hospital Magdeburg GmbH, 39130 Magdeburg, Germany
2
Institute of Molecular and Clinical Immunology, Otto-von-Guericke University, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3548; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113548
Received: 7 September 2020 / Revised: 3 November 2020 / Accepted: 16 November 2020 / Published: 19 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Micronutrients and Human Health)
Zinc is an essential trace element for human health and plays a fundamental role in metabolic, immunological and many other biological processes. The effects of zinc are based on the intra- and extracellular regulatory function of the zinc ion (Zn2+) and its interactions with proteins. The regulation of cellular zinc homeostasis takes place via a complex network of metal transporters and buffering systems that react to changes in the availability of zinc in nutrition, chronic diseases, infections and many other processes. Zinc deficiency is associated with impairment of numerous metabolic processes, reduced resistance to infections due to impaired immune functions, changes in skin and its appendages and disorders of wound healing and haemostasis. While ischemic heart attacks (myocardial infarction) occur more frequently with meat-based normal diets, haemorrhagic strokes are more frequently observed with vegetarian/vegan diets. The causes are discussed as deficiencies of various micronutrients, such as vitamin B12, vitamin D, various amino acids and also zinc. In the present review, after a description of the functions of zinc and its resorption, a discussion of daily food intake will follow, with a special focus on the importance of food composition and preparation for the zinc balance. The close interrelationships between proteins, especially albumin and zinc will be discussed. Finally, the possible causes and consequences of a zinc deficiency on the blood vessels and blood coagulation are considered. View Full-Text
Keywords: zinc resorption; zinc functions; food composition; zinc deficiency zinc resorption; zinc functions; food composition; zinc deficiency
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MDPI and ACS Style

Grüngreiff, K.; Gottstein, T.; Reinhold, D. Zinc Deficiency—An Independent Risk Factor in the Pathogenesis of Haemorrhagic Stroke? Nutrients 2020, 12, 3548. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113548

AMA Style

Grüngreiff K, Gottstein T, Reinhold D. Zinc Deficiency—An Independent Risk Factor in the Pathogenesis of Haemorrhagic Stroke? Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3548. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113548

Chicago/Turabian Style

Grüngreiff, Kurt, Thomas Gottstein, and Dirk Reinhold. 2020. "Zinc Deficiency—An Independent Risk Factor in the Pathogenesis of Haemorrhagic Stroke?" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3548. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113548

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