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Article

Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid Is Related to Happiness and a Sense of Fulfillment—A Study among Female Nursing Workers

1
Institute of Medical, Pharmaceutical & Health Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
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Department of Neurology and Internal Psychosomatic Medicine, Bantane Hospital, Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Nagoya 454-8509, Japan
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Faculty of Agriculture, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki 889-2192, Japan
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School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan
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Department of Health and Psychosocial Medicine, School of Medicine, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute 480-1195, Japan
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Department of Nursing, University of Human Environments, Obu 474-0035, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nutrients 2020, 12(11), 3462; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113462
Received: 6 October 2020 / Revised: 29 October 2020 / Accepted: 5 November 2020 / Published: 11 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Nutrition and Public Health)
Background: Omega (ω) 3 fatty acid (FA) is a polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) that can modulate some mental statuses. However, most studies have not considered the functional differences between eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We investigated associations among happiness, a sense of fulfillment and serum ω3 PUFA levels. Methods: Participants were 133 female staff from a hospital and nursing homes. Happiness was measured using the Japanese version of the subjective happiness scale (SHS); a sense of fulfillment was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Serum FA concentrations were measured. A partial correlation test and a regression model were applied. Results: The SHS scores showed significantly positive correlations with a sense of fulfillment, DHA% and EPA% (p < 0.05, < 0.05 and < 0.005, respectively), after controlling for age, BMI, menopause, snacking habits and leisure-time physical activities. A sense of fulfillment was significantly negatively correlated with α-linoleic acid%, and positively correlated with DHA% and EPA% (p < 0.05, < 0.05 and < 0.005, respectively), after controlling for the confounders. A regression model showed that a sense of fulfillment, EPA, and not stopping menstruation explained happiness (standardised beta, B = 0.18, p < 0.05; B = 0.24, p < 0.01; and B = 0.32, and p < 0.05, respectively), whereas age, BMI and snacking habits could not. Simultaneously, a regression model could not explain the association between DHA and happiness. Conclusion: Happiness was related with serum EPA%, a sense of fulfillment, and premenopause. View Full-Text
Keywords: docosahexaenoic acid; eicosapentaenoic acid; α-linolenic acid; happiness; linoleic acid; a sense of fulfillment docosahexaenoic acid; eicosapentaenoic acid; α-linolenic acid; happiness; linoleic acid; a sense of fulfillment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tsuboi, H.; Sakakibara, H.; Matsunaga, M.; Tatsumi, A.; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, K.; Yoshida, N.; Shimoi, K. Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid Is Related to Happiness and a Sense of Fulfillment—A Study among Female Nursing Workers. Nutrients 2020, 12, 3462. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113462

AMA Style

Tsuboi H, Sakakibara H, Matsunaga M, Tatsumi A, Yamakawa-Kobayashi K, Yoshida N, Shimoi K. Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid Is Related to Happiness and a Sense of Fulfillment—A Study among Female Nursing Workers. Nutrients. 2020; 12(11):3462. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113462

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tsuboi, Hirohito, Hiroyuki Sakakibara, Masahiro Matsunaga, Asami Tatsumi, Kimiko Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Naoko Yoshida, and Kayoko Shimoi. 2020. "Omega-3 Eicosapentaenoic Acid Is Related to Happiness and a Sense of Fulfillment—A Study among Female Nursing Workers" Nutrients 12, no. 11: 3462. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113462

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